Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Packet Forwarding Encouragement Scheme in a Wireless Sensor Network

Packet Forwarding Encouragement Scheme in a Wireless Sensor Network

Ratings: (0)|Views: 77 |Likes:
Published by ijcsis
The most common issue in wireless sensor networks is limited availability of energy within network nodes. A widely used energy-saving technique is to place nodes in sleep mode, corresponding to low-power consumption as well as to reduce operational capabilities. To conserve energy, sometime nodes
may try to maximize the benefits of its own without participating in routing services (e.g. without forwarding packets of other nodes). To conquer with this problem, several schemes have been investigated in the literature. In this paper such nodes are detected and evicted from the network using rating based multipath dynamic source routing. In our approach after route discovery, multiple paths are returned by the destination node, which are stored by source node in route cache. Once source node identifies such node in its path based on its rating threshold, an alternative path is selected from the route cache. In sensor network a node may be overused due to network topology. In order to mitigate this problem, this paper uses a minimum battery cost routing (MBCR).The simulation results for rating based multipath dynamic source routing indicates significant improvement in aggregate network throughput.
The most common issue in wireless sensor networks is limited availability of energy within network nodes. A widely used energy-saving technique is to place nodes in sleep mode, corresponding to low-power consumption as well as to reduce operational capabilities. To conserve energy, sometime nodes
may try to maximize the benefits of its own without participating in routing services (e.g. without forwarding packets of other nodes). To conquer with this problem, several schemes have been investigated in the literature. In this paper such nodes are detected and evicted from the network using rating based multipath dynamic source routing. In our approach after route discovery, multiple paths are returned by the destination node, which are stored by source node in route cache. Once source node identifies such node in its path based on its rating threshold, an alternative path is selected from the route cache. In sensor network a node may be overused due to network topology. In order to mitigate this problem, this paper uses a minimum battery cost routing (MBCR).The simulation results for rating based multipath dynamic source routing indicates significant improvement in aggregate network throughput.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on May 11, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/11/2011

pdf

text

original

 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, 2011
Packet Forwarding Encouragement Scheme in aWireless Sensor Network 
Praveen Kaushik 
Department of CSEMANITBhopal, India praveenkaushikmanit@gmail.com
Jyoti Singhai
Department of ECEMANITBhopal, India j.singhai@gmail.com 
 Abstract
- The most common issue in wireless sensor networks islimited availability of energy within network nodes. A widelyused energy-saving technique is to place nodes in sleep mode,corresponding to low-power consumption as well as to reduceoperational capabilities. To conserve energy, sometime nodesmay try to maximize the benefits of its own without participatingin routing services (e.g. without forwarding packets of othernodes). To conquer with this problem, several schemes have beeninvestigated in the literature. In this paper such nodes aredetected and evicted from the network using rating basedmultipath dynamic source routing. In our approach after routediscovery, multiple paths are returned by the destination node,which are stored by source node in route cache. Once sourcenode identifies such node in its path based on its rating threshold,an alternative path is selected from the route cache. In sensornetwork a node may be overused due to network topology. Inorder to mitigate this problem, this paper uses a minimumbattery cost routing (MBCR).The simulation results for ratingbased multipath dynamic source routing indicates significantimprovement in aggregate network throughput.
 Keywords
-
 minimum cost; multipath ; reluctant node; wireless sensor network;
 
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a collection of low-enddevices whose size can range from a few hundred sensors to afew hundred thousand or possibly more. The sensors do notrely on any pre-deployed network architecture. The power supply of each individual sensor is provided by a battery,whose consumption for both communication and computationactivities must be optimized. A WSN may consist of manynodes without any grouping hierarchy. Nodes cancommunicate using any wireless technology such as Bluetooth,ZigBee or IEEE standards.In wireless sensor networks, two nodes can exchange datawhen they are located within one another’s communicationrange. In WSN all nodes cooperates and forward packet for each other as a router. Here it is possible that nodes may not be within the communication range of each other. At this stage,nodes extend the transmission range by multi hop packetforwarding. In ad hoc network nodes can be of two types’cooperative nodes and inactive nodes. Cooperative nodescomply with the standard at all times. Inactive nodes includelazy nodes and constrained nodes (e.g. energy constrained or field strength constrained). A routing algorithm plays a crucialrole in transmission of data among nodes. Also dynamic behavior of nodes causes several challenges in design of routing scheme. A lot of algorithms have been proposedclaiming fairness in routing. DSR is most widely adaptedalgorithm for routing. But the original algorithm is known tofail in a scenario containing non cooperative nodes. In [1] proposed a mechanism for identifying and isolating selfishnodes to attain fairness. However after decaling a node selfish,source node needs to identify alternate path using RouteDiscovery. This causes a lot many packet drops before itidentifies alternate path.Multipath Source Routing [10] can increase performance by providing applications the liberty to use multiple paths during packet forwarding. Also it stores multiple paths required. WithMultipath Source Routing data can be forwarded on arbitraryroutes, which makes it very easy to forward data to multiple paths without use of path using Route Discovery. This causesa lot many packet drops before it identifies alternate path.II.
 
 NODE MODEL
 
 A.
 
 Malicious nodes
 Nodes which drops packet with the intention to cause network attack.
 B.
 
 Reluctant nodes
Reluctant nodes try to save their own resources sinceresources are very constrained in wireless network. Reluctantnodes may decide to conserve their resources by notforwarding data packets for other nodes:This can be achieved in two ways:
1)
 
Reluctant node of type 1: In this model the reluctantnode do not participate in the Route Discovery phase of DSR  protocol[10] . Such reluctant nodes not only drop packets thathave a source address or destination address different fromthese reluctant nodes but also drop all RREQ packet theyreceive or not forward RREP packet to some destination. If thenode does not participate in the route discovery process, thenthere will be no route with that reluctant node. The outcome isthat these reluctant nodes will be isolated i.e. these nodes will
151http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, 2011
never participate in packet forwarding. A reluctant node of thistype uses the node energy only for its own communication.
2)
 
Reluctant node of type 2: In this type of model, thereluctant node does not forward packets which are destined toother nodes[10]. These reluctant nodes participate correctlyin the routing function by advertising available roots. Whenthis behaviour is chosen, reluctant nodes do not cooperate in packet forwarding function. However, a reluctant node thatoperates complying with this model, participates in the routediscovery and route maintenance phase of the DSR protocol.The outcome of this type of behaviour is that the reluctantnode will save a major amount of energy (battery life) bydropping great no of data packets.III.
 
RELATED
 
WORK A lot of algorithm has been proposed claiming fairness inrouting.L Wang, Y Shu, M Dong, L Zhang proposed amultipath source routing scheme [9]. This scheme makes useof DSR’s route discovery mechanism whereby multiple routescan be returned. The more alternative routes available in routecache, the more possibility that a node can find a perfect route.To get multiple route dsr optional feature is enabled. All theroutes discovered are stored in the route cache with a uniqueroute index. Route index is used in selecting multiple pathsfrom the route cache.S. Marti, T. J. Giuli, K. Lai and M. Baker proposed twotechniques that improve throughput of a network in the presence of reluctant nodes [1]. The watchdog method is usedfor each node to detect misbehaving nodes in the network.When a node sends a packet to next hop, it tries to overhear the packet forwarded by next hop. If it hears that the packet isforwarded by next hop and the packet matches the previous packet that it has sent itself, it considers the next hop node behaves well. Otherwise it considers the next hop node ismisbehaving. The pathrater uses the knowledge aboutmisbehaving nodes acquired from watchdog to pick the routethat is most likely to be reliable. Each node maintains a trustrating for every other node. When watchdog detects a node ismisbehaving, the trust rating of the node is updated in negativeway. When a node wants to choose a safe route to send packets, pathrater calculates a path metric by averaging thenode ratings in the path.S. Marti, T. J. Giuli, K. Lai and M. Baker implemented thesolutions on DSR protocol using ns2 as simulationenvironment. The simulation result shows the throughput of the network is increased by up to 27% in a network where packet drop attack happens. However, routing overhead is alsoincreased up to 24%.A lot of work has been proposed on sensor network usingreputation to bring fairness in routing [11]. S. Buchegger andJ.Y. LeBoudec proposed CONFIDANT algorithm using bothdirect and indirect observations to measure fairness inDynamic Ad -hoc Networks [2]. CONFIDANT makes adistinction trust from reputation. For each node, reputationrating signifies how well a node behaves while trust ratingstands for how honest a node is. Reputation rating is used tomake a decision whether the node is regular or misbehaved,while trust rating is used to choose whether the node istrustworthy or not as a recommender.Michiardi and Molva proposed CORE (CollaborativeReputation mechanism) [3]. It defers from Watchdog andCONFIDANT by bringing aging factor with more weight on past observations and isolating nodes having bad reputation.Three types of reputations are used in the CORE.Subjective reputation of a target node is the reputationcalculated directly from a subject’s inspection of the targetnode’s behavior. Indirect reputation is evaluated onlyconsidering the direct communication between a subject andits neighbours. Function reputation is the subjective andindirect reputation calculated with respect to differentfunctions such as forwarding a data packet, reply route request.The final reputation information is combined from the threereputations with different weight associated to the functionalreputation value. CORE consists of two basic components:Reputation Table (RT) is a data structure stored in eachnetwork entity, keeping the reputation data pertaining to thenodes in the network. The Watchdog mechanism (WD) is usedto detect misbehaving nodes. With CORE only positive ratingfactors are distributed among the entities to avoid amisbehaving entity to distribute false information about other entities in order to initiate a denial of service (DoS) attack.Miranda and Rodrigues classified nodes into friends, foesand reluctant but at the cost of memory and message overhead[4]. W. J. Adams, G. C. Hadjichristofi and N. J. Davis usedReputation Indexing Windows (RIW) to handle misbehavingnodes [5]. Unlike CORE it emphasised on current feedback items rather than old ones.S. Zhong, J. Chen and R. Yang proposed Sprite [13], acredit-based system for MANET. As opposed to Nuglets or Counter they do not require tamper-proof hardware to preventthe fabrication of payment units.IV.
 
D
YNAMIC
S
OURCE
OUTING
 
 A.
 
Overview
The DSR is an entirely on demand routing protocol whichcomposed of two parts: route discovery and route maintenance[6].
 B.
 
 Route Discovery
In DSR, whenever a node needs to send a packet to somedestination for which, it does not currently have a route in itsroute cache, it initiates Route Discovery to find a route. Theinitiator broadcasts a Route Request packet to its neighbours,specifying the target and a unique identifier from the initiator.Each node receives the route request. If it has recently seenthis request identifier from the initiator, discards the request.Otherwise it appends its own node address to a list in therequest and rebroadcasts the request. When the route requestreaches its target node, the target sends a route reply back tothe initiator of the request, including a copy of accumulatedlist of address from the request. When the reply reaches theinitiator of the request, it caches the new route in the route
152http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->