(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, 2011
never participate in packet forwarding. A reluctant node of thistype uses the node energy only for its own communication.
Reluctant node of type 2: In this type of model, thereluctant node does not forward packets which are destined toother nodes. These reluctant nodes participate correctlyin the routing function by advertising available roots. Whenthis behaviour is chosen, reluctant nodes do not cooperate in packet forwarding function. However, a reluctant node thatoperates complying with this model, participates in the routediscovery and route maintenance phase of the DSR protocol.The outcome of this type of behaviour is that the reluctantnode will save a major amount of energy (battery life) bydropping great no of data packets.III.
WORK A lot of algorithm has been proposed claiming fairness inrouting.L Wang, Y Shu, M Dong, L Zhang proposed amultipath source routing scheme . This scheme makes useof DSR’s route discovery mechanism whereby multiple routescan be returned. The more alternative routes available in routecache, the more possibility that a node can find a perfect route.To get multiple route dsr optional feature is enabled. All theroutes discovered are stored in the route cache with a uniqueroute index. Route index is used in selecting multiple pathsfrom the route cache.S. Marti, T. J. Giuli, K. Lai and M. Baker proposed twotechniques that improve throughput of a network in the presence of reluctant nodes . The watchdog method is usedfor each node to detect misbehaving nodes in the network.When a node sends a packet to next hop, it tries to overhear the packet forwarded by next hop. If it hears that the packet isforwarded by next hop and the packet matches the previous packet that it has sent itself, it considers the next hop node behaves well. Otherwise it considers the next hop node ismisbehaving. The pathrater uses the knowledge aboutmisbehaving nodes acquired from watchdog to pick the routethat is most likely to be reliable. Each node maintains a trustrating for every other node. When watchdog detects a node ismisbehaving, the trust rating of the node is updated in negativeway. When a node wants to choose a safe route to send packets, pathrater calculates a path metric by averaging thenode ratings in the path.S. Marti, T. J. Giuli, K. Lai and M. Baker implemented thesolutions on DSR protocol using ns2 as simulationenvironment. The simulation result shows the throughput of the network is increased by up to 27% in a network where packet drop attack happens. However, routing overhead is alsoincreased up to 24%.A lot of work has been proposed on sensor network usingreputation to bring fairness in routing . S. Buchegger andJ.Y. LeBoudec proposed CONFIDANT algorithm using bothdirect and indirect observations to measure fairness inDynamic Ad -hoc Networks . CONFIDANT makes adistinction trust from reputation. For each node, reputationrating signifies how well a node behaves while trust ratingstands for how honest a node is. Reputation rating is used tomake a decision whether the node is regular or misbehaved,while trust rating is used to choose whether the node istrustworthy or not as a recommender.Michiardi and Molva proposed CORE (CollaborativeReputation mechanism) . It defers from Watchdog andCONFIDANT by bringing aging factor with more weight on past observations and isolating nodes having bad reputation.Three types of reputations are used in the CORE.Subjective reputation of a target node is the reputationcalculated directly from a subject’s inspection of the targetnode’s behavior. Indirect reputation is evaluated onlyconsidering the direct communication between a subject andits neighbours. Function reputation is the subjective andindirect reputation calculated with respect to differentfunctions such as forwarding a data packet, reply route request.The final reputation information is combined from the threereputations with different weight associated to the functionalreputation value. CORE consists of two basic components:Reputation Table (RT) is a data structure stored in eachnetwork entity, keeping the reputation data pertaining to thenodes in the network. The Watchdog mechanism (WD) is usedto detect misbehaving nodes. With CORE only positive ratingfactors are distributed among the entities to avoid amisbehaving entity to distribute false information about other entities in order to initiate a denial of service (DoS) attack.Miranda and Rodrigues classified nodes into friends, foesand reluctant but at the cost of memory and message overhead. W. J. Adams, G. C. Hadjichristofi and N. J. Davis usedReputation Indexing Windows (RIW) to handle misbehavingnodes . Unlike CORE it emphasised on current feedback items rather than old ones.S. Zhong, J. Chen and R. Yang proposed Sprite , acredit-based system for MANET. As opposed to Nuglets or Counter they do not require tamper-proof hardware to preventthe fabrication of payment units.IV.
The DSR is an entirely on demand routing protocol whichcomposed of two parts: route discovery and route maintenance.
In DSR, whenever a node needs to send a packet to somedestination for which, it does not currently have a route in itsroute cache, it initiates Route Discovery to find a route. Theinitiator broadcasts a Route Request packet to its neighbours,specifying the target and a unique identifier from the initiator.Each node receives the route request. If it has recently seenthis request identifier from the initiator, discards the request.Otherwise it appends its own node address to a list in therequest and rebroadcasts the request. When the route requestreaches its target node, the target sends a route reply back tothe initiator of the request, including a copy of accumulatedlist of address from the request. When the reply reaches theinitiator of the request, it caches the new route in the route