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Machine Learning BOOK

Machine Learning BOOK

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Published by: Girish Kumar Nistala on May 12, 2011
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INTRODUCTION
TO
MACHINE LEARNING
AN EARLY DRAFT OF A PROPOSEDTEXTBOOK
Nils J. NilssonRobotics LaboratoryDepartment of Computer ScienceStanford UniversityStanford, CA 94305
e-mail: nilsson@cs.stanford.edu
November 3, 1998
Copyrightc
2005 Nils J. NilssonThis material may not be copied, reproduced, or distributed without thewritten permission of the copyright holder.
 
ii
 
Contents
1 Preliminaries 1
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1 What is Machine Learning? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.2 Wellsprings of Machine Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.1.3 Varieties of Machine Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2 Learning Input-Output Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2.1 Types of Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2.2 Input Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.2.3 Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2.4 Training Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2.5 Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.2.6 Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.3 Learning Requires Bias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.4 Sample Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.5 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.6 Bibliographical and Historical Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2 Boolean Functions 15
2.1 Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.1.1 Boolean Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.1.2 Diagrammatic Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.2 Classes of Boolean Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.2.1 Terms and Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.2.2 DNF Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.2.3 CNF Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212.2.4 Decision Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.2.5 Symmetric and Voting Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.2.6 Linearly Separable Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242.4 Bibliographical and Historical Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25iii

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