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18424933 Metrology and Measurements

18424933 Metrology and Measurements

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Published by Shishir Fawade

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Published by: Shishir Fawade on May 12, 2011
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Standards of Measurements
The different types of standards of length are1.Material Standards(a)Line Standard – When length is measured as the distancebetween centers of two engraved lines.(b)End Standard – When length is measured as the distancebetween to flat parallel faces.2.Wavelength StandardThe wavelength of a selected orange radiation of Krtypton-86isotope was measured and used as the basic unit of length.
International Prototype Meter
International Prototype meter is defined as the straight linedistance, at 0’c between the engraved lines of a platinum irridiumalloy of 1020 mm of total length and having a tresca cross-sectionas shown in the figure. The graduations are on the upper surface of the web, which coincides with the neutral axis of the section. Thesectional shape gives better rigidity for the amount of metalinvolved and is therefore economic in use for an expensive metal.
Line and End Standards and differentiate between them
Line Standards
When length is measured as the distancebetween centers of two engraved lines, it is called Line Standards.Both material Standards, yard and metre are line standardsE.g. Scale, Rulers, Imperial Standard Yard.Characteristics of Line Standards :(i)Scale can be accurately emblemed, but the engraved linesposses thickness and it is not possible to accurately measure(ii)Scale is used over a wide range(iii)Scale markings are subjected to wear. However the ends aresubjected to wear and this leads to undersize measurements(iv)Scale does not posses built in datum. Therefore it is notpossible to align the scale with the axis of measurement(v)Scales are subjected to parallax errors(vi)Assistance of magnifying glass or microscope is required.
End Standards
When length is expressed as the distancebetween centers of two flat parallel faces, it is called EndStandards. Slip Gauges, End Bars, Ends of micrometer Anvils.Characteristics of End Standards(i)Highly accurate and used for measurement of closedtolerances in precision engineering as well as standardlaboratories, tool rooms, inspection departments.(ii)They require more time for measurement and measure onlyone dimension.(iii)They wear at their measuring faces(iv)They are not subjected to parallax error.
Differentiate between Line and End Standards
Sl noCharacteristicsLine StandardEnd Standard
PrincipleLength is expressedas distancebetween 2 linesLength is expressedas distance between 2ends
Accuracy Ltd. To ±0.2mm.Highly accurate of closed tolerances to±0.001mm
EaseQuick and easyTime consuming andrequires skill
Effect of wearWear at only theendswear at measuringsurfaces
AllignmentCannot be easilyalignedeasily aligned
Costlow costhigh cost
Parallax EffectSubjected toparallax effectnot subjected toparallax effect 
Slip Gauges
Slip Gauges are universally accepted end standards of Length inindustry. Also known as Johnson gauges. Slip gauges arerectangular blocks of high grade steel with close tolerances. Theyare hardened throughout to ensure maximum resistance to wear.For successful use of slip gauges their working faces are truly flatand parallel. Most slip gauges are made from constant alloy which isextremely hard and wear resistance.
Wringing of slip gauges
Wringing :
Success of precision elements which can be made withslip gauges either by using it alone or in conjunction with othersample apparatus such as rollers, sine centers, sine bars, etc,depends on the phenomenon of wringing. The slip gauges arewrung together by hand by a combined sliding and twisting motionas shown.The gap between two wrung slip gauges is only of the order of 0.0065 microns, which is negligible.Procedure :(i) Before using, the slip gauges are cleaned(ii) One slip gauge is then oscillated slightly over the other slipgauge with a light pressure.(iii) One gauge is then raised at 90 degrees, to the other, andby using light pressure it is rotated until the blocks are in line.
Principle of Interchangeability and selective assembly
 Interchangeability - It occurs when one part in an assembly can besubstituted for a similar part which has been made to the samedrawing. Interchangeability is possible only when certain standardsare strictly followed. In universal interchangeability the mating partsare drawn from two different manufacturing sources. This isdesirable. When all parts to be assembled are made in the samemanufacturing unit, then local standards may be followed which isknown as local interchangeability.Selective assembly - In selective assembly the parts are gradedaccording to the size and only the matched grades of mating partsare assembled. The technique is most suitable where a close fit of two component assemblies is required. It results in completeprotection against non-conforming assemblies and reducesmachining costs since close tolerances are maintained.
Different types of fits.
When two parts are to be assembled, the relationship resulting fromthe difference between their sizes before assembly is called a fit.Clearance fit : In this type of fit, the largest permitted shaftdiameter is smaller than the diameter of the smallest hole, so that

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