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Chuyen de Bien Doi Bieu Thuc Dai Sodoc

# Chuyen de Bien Doi Bieu Thuc Dai Sodoc

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05/12/2011

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Chuyªn ®Ò båi dìng Hsg m«n to¸n 8 – phÇn ®¹i sèChuyªn ®Ò 2
BiÕn ®æi biÓu thøc ®¹i sè
a – biÓn ®æi biÓu thøc nguyªnI. Mét sè h»ng ®¼ng thøc c¬ b¶n
1.(a
±
b)
2
= a
2

±
2ab + b
2
;(a + b + c)
2
= a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
+ 2ab + 2bc + 2ca ;
21 2 n
(aa...a)+++==
+ + + + + + + + + + + +
2 2 21 2 n 1 2 1 3 1 n 2 3 2 n n 1 n
aa...a2(aaaa...aaaa...aa...aa);2.(a
±
b)
3
= a
3

±
3a
2
b + 3ab
2

±
b
3
= a
3

±
b
3

±
3ab(a
±
b);(a
±
b)
4
= a
4

±
4a
3
b + 6a
2
b
2

±
4ab
3
+ b
4
;3.a
2
– b
2
= (a – b)(a + b) ;a
3
– b
3
= (a – b)(a
2
+ ab + b
2
) ;a
n
– b
n
= (a – b)(a
n – 1
+ a
n – 2
b + a
n – 3
b
2
+ … + ab
n – 2
+ b
n – 1
) ;4.a
3
+ b
3
= (a + b)(a
2
– ab + b
2
)a
5
+ b
5
= (a + b)(a
4
– a
3
b + a
2
b
2
– ab
3
+ b
5
) ;a
2k + 1
+ b
2k + 1
= (a + b)(a
2k
– a
2k – 1
b + a
2k – 2
b
2
– … + a
2
b
2k – 2
– ab
2k – 1
+ b
2k
) ;
II. B¶ng c¸c hÖ sè trong khai triÓn (a + b)
n
– Tam gi¸c Pascal
§Ønh1Dßng 1 (n =1)11Dßng 2 (n =2)121Dßng 3 (n =3)1331Dßng 4 (n =4)14641Dßng 5 (n =5)15101051Trong tam gi¸c nµy, hai c¹nh bªn gåm c¸c sè 1 ; dßng k + 1 ®îcthµnh lËp tõ dßng k (k
1), ch¼ng h¹n ë dßng 2 ta cã 2 = 1 + 1, ëdßng 3 ta cã 3 = 2 + 1, 3 = 1 + 2, ë dßng 4 ta cã 4 = 1 + 3, 6 = 3 +3, 4 = 3 + 1, …Khai triÓn (x + y)
n
thµnh tæng th× c¸c hÖ sè cña c¸ch¹ng tö lµ c¸c sè trong dßng thø n cña b¶ng trªn. Ngêi ta gäi b¶ng trªnlµ tam gi¸c Pascal, nã thêng ®îc sö dông khi n kh«ng qu¸ lín. Ch¼ngh¹n, víi n = 4 th× :(a + b)
4
= a
4
+ 4a
3
b + 6a
2
b
2
+ 4ab
3
+ b
4
vµ víi n = 5 th× :biªn so¹n : TrÇn Ngäc §¹i – thcs thôy phóc1

Chuyªn ®Ò båi dìng Hsg m«n to¸n 8 – phÇn ®¹i sè(a + b)
5
= a
5
+ 5a
4
b + 10a
3
b
2
+ 10a
2
b
3
+ 10ab
4
+ b
5
II. C¸c
VÝ dô 1. §¬n gi¶n biÓu thøc sau :A = (x + y + z)
3
– (x + y – z)
3
– (y + z – x)
3
– (z + x – y)
3
.Lêi gi¶iA = [(x + y) + z]
3
– [(x + y) – z]
3
– [z – (x – y)]
3
– [z + (x – y)]
3
= [(x + y)
3
+ 3(x + y)
2
z + 3(x + y)z
2
+ z
3
] – [(x + y)
3
– 3(x + y)
2
z+ 3(x + y)z
2
– z
3
] –– [z
3
– 3z
2
(x – y) + 3z(x – y)
2
– (x – y)
3
] – [z
3
+ 3z
2
(x – y) + 3z(x –y)
2
+ (x – y)
3
]= 6(x + y)
2
z 6z(x y)
2
= 24xyzVÝ dô 2. Cho x + y = a, xy = b (a
2

4b). TÝnh gi¸ trÞ cña c¸c biÓuthøc sau :a) x
2
+ y
2
; b) x
3
+ y
3
; c) x
4
+ y
4
;d) x
5
+ y
5
Lêi gi¶ia)x
2
+ y
2
= (x + y)
2
– 2xy = a
2
– 2bb)x
3
+ y
3
= (x + y)
3
– 3xy(x + y) = a
3
– 3abc)x
4
+ y
4
= (x
2
+ y
2
)
2
– 2x
2
y
2
= (a
2
– 2b)
2
– 2b
2
= a
4
– 4a
2
b + 2b
2
d)(x
2
+ y
2
)(x
3
+ y
3
) = x
5
+ x
2
y
3
+ x
3
y
2
+ y
5
= (x
5
+ y
5
) + x
2
y
2
(x + y)Hay : (a
2
– 2b)(a
3
– 3ab) = (x
5
+ y
5
) + ab
2

x
5
+ y
5
= a
5
– 5a
3
b +5ab
2
Chó ý : a
6
+ b
6
= (a
2
)
3
+ (b
2
)
3
= (a
3
)
2
+ (b
3
)
2
a
7
+ b
7
= (a
3
+ b
3
)(a
4
+ b
4
) – a
3
b
3
(a + b)= (a
2
+ b
2
)(a
5
+ b
5
) – a
2
b
2
(a
3
+ b
3
)
VÝ dô 3. Chøng minh c¸c h»ng ®¼ng thøc :a)a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
– 3abc = (a + b + c)(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
– ab – bc – ca) ;b)(a + b + c)
3
– a
3
– b
3
– c
3
= 3(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)Lêi gi¶ia)a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
– 3abc = (a + b)
3
+ c
3
– 3abc – 3a
2
b – 3ab
2
= (a + b + c)[(a + b)
2
– (a + b)c + c
2
] – 3ab(a + b + c)= (a + b + c) [(a + b)
2
– (a + b)c + c
2
– 3ab]= (a + b + c)(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
– ab – bc – ca)b)(a + b + c)
3
– a
3
– b
3
– c
3
= [(a + b + c)
3
– a
3
] – (b
3
+ c
3
)= (b + c)[(a + b + c)
2
+ (a + b + c)a + a
2
] – (b + c)(b
2
– bc + c
2
)= (b + c)(3a
2
+ 3ab + 3bc + 3ca) = 3(b + c)[a(a + b) + c(a + b)]= 3(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)VÝ dô 4. Ph©n tÝch biÓu thøc sau thµnh nh©n tö :A = x
3
– 3(a
2
+ b
2
)x + 2(a
3
+ b
3
)biªn so¹n : TrÇn Ngäc §¹i – thcs thôy phóc2

Chuyªn ®Ò båi dìng Hsg m«n to¸n 8 – phÇn ®¹i sèLêi gi¶i§Æt S = a + b vµ P = ab, th× a
2
+ b
2
=
2
S2P-; a
3
+ b
3
=
3
S3SP-.V× vËy :A = x
3
– 3(
2
S2P-)x + 2(
3
S3SP-) =
3 3 2 3
(xS)(3Sx3S)(6Px6SP)---+-=
2 2 2
(xS)(xSxS)3S(xS)6P(xS)-++--+-=
2 2
(xS)(xSx2S6P)-+-+= (x – a – b)[x
2
+ (a + b)x – 2(a + b)
2
+ 6ab]= (x – a – b)[x
2
+ (a + b)x – 2(a
2
VÝ dô 5. Cho x + y + z = 0. Chøng minh r»ng : 2(x
5
+ y
5
+ z
5
) =5xyz(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)Lêi gi¶ix + y + z = 0 nªn x + y = –z
(x + y)
3
= –z
3
Hay x
3
+ y
3
+ 3xy(x + y) = –z
3

3xyz = x
3
+ y
3
+ z
3
Do ®ã : 3xyz(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
) = (x
3
+ y
3
+ z
3
)(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)= x
5
+ y
5
+ z
5
+ x
3
(y
2
+ z
2
) + y
3
(z
2
+ x
2
) +z
3
(x
2
+ y
2
)Mµ x
2
+ y
2
= (x + y)
2
– 2xy = z
2
– 2xy (v× x + y = –z). T¬ng tù :y
2
+ z
2
= x
2
– 2yz ; z
2
+ x
2
= y
2
– 2zx.V× vËy : 3xyz(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
) = x
5
+ y
5
+ z
5
+ x
3
(x
2
– 2yz) + y
3
(y
2
2zx) + z
3
(z
3
– 2xy)= 2(x
5
+ y
5
+ z
5
) – 2xyz(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)Suy ra : 2(x
5
+ y
5
+ z
5
) = 5xyz(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
) (®pcm)Bµi tËp1.Ph©n tÝch c¸c ®a thøc sau thµnh nh©n tö :a)x
3
+ 4x
2
– 29x + 24 ;b)x
4
+ 6x
3
+ 7x
2
– 6x + 1 ;c)(x
2
– x + 2)
2
+ (x – 2)
2
;d)6x
5
+ 15x
4
+ 20x
3
+ 15x
2
+ 6x + 1 ;e)x
6
+ 3x
5
+ 4x
4
+ 4x
3
+ 4x
2
+ 3x + 1.2.Ph©n tÝch c¸c ®a thøc sau thµnh nh©n tö :a)x
8
+ x
4
+ 1;b)x
10
+ x
5
+ 1 ;c)x
12
+ 1 ;3.Ph©n tÝch c¸c ®a thøc sau thµnh nh©n tö :a)(x + y + z)
3
– x
3
– y
3
– z
3
;b)(x + y + z)
5
– x
5
– y
5
– z
5
.biªn so¹n : TrÇn Ngäc §¹i – thcs thôy phóc3