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Chuyen de Bien Doi Bieu Thuc Dai SodocRatings: (0)|Views: 108|Likes: 0

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/55261131/Chuyen-de-Bien-Doi-Bieu-Thuc-Dai-Sodoc

05/12/2011

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Chuyªn ®Ò båi dìng Hsg m«n to¸n 8 – phÇn ®¹i sèChuyªn ®Ò 2

BiÕn ®æi biÓu thøc ®¹i sè

a – biÓn ®æi biÓu thøc nguyªnI. Mét sè h»ng ®¼ng thøc c¬ b¶n

1.(a

±

b)

2

= a

2

±

2ab + b

2

;(a + b + c)

2

= a

2

+ b

2

+ c

2

+ 2ab + 2bc + 2ca ;

21 2 n

(aa...a)+++==

−

+ + + + + + + + + + + +

2 2 21 2 n 1 2 1 3 1 n 2 3 2 n n 1 n

aa...a2(aaaa...aaaa...aa...aa);2.(a

±

b)

3

= a

3

±

3a

2

b + 3ab

2

±

b

3

= a

3

±

b

3

±

3ab(a

±

b);(a

±

b)

4

= a

4

±

4a

3

b + 6a

2

b

2

±

4ab

3

+ b

4

;3.a

2

– b

2

= (a – b)(a + b) ;a

3

– b

3

= (a – b)(a

2

+ ab + b

2

) ;a

n

– b

n

= (a – b)(a

n – 1

+ a

n – 2

b + a

n – 3

b

2

+ … + ab

n – 2

+ b

n – 1

) ;4.a

3

+ b

3

= (a + b)(a

2

– ab + b

2

)a

5

+ b

5

= (a + b)(a

4

– a

3

b + a

2

b

2

– ab

3

+ b

5

) ;a

2k + 1

+ b

2k + 1

= (a + b)(a

2k

– a

2k – 1

b + a

2k – 2

b

2

– … + a

2

b

2k – 2

– ab

2k – 1

+ b

2k

) ;

II. B¶ng c¸c hÖ sè trong khai triÓn (a + b)

n

– Tam gi¸c Pascal

§Ønh1Dßng 1 (n =1)11Dßng 2 (n =2)121Dßng 3 (n =3)1331Dßng 4 (n =4)14641Dßng 5 (n =5)15101051Trong tam gi¸c nµy, hai c¹nh bªn gåm c¸c sè 1 ; dßng k + 1 ®îcthµnh lËp tõ dßng k (k

≥

1), ch¼ng h¹n ë dßng 2 ta cã 2 = 1 + 1, ëdßng 3 ta cã 3 = 2 + 1, 3 = 1 + 2, ë dßng 4 ta cã 4 = 1 + 3, 6 = 3 +3, 4 = 3 + 1, …Khai triÓn (x + y)

n

thµnh tæng th× c¸c hÖ sè cña c¸ch¹ng tö lµ c¸c sè trong dßng thø n cña b¶ng trªn. Ngêi ta gäi b¶ng trªnlµ tam gi¸c Pascal, nã thêng ®îc sö dông khi n kh«ng qu¸ lín. Ch¼ngh¹n, víi n = 4 th× :(a + b)

4

= a

4

+ 4a

3

b + 6a

2

b

2

+ 4ab

3

+ b

4

vµ víi n = 5 th× :biªn so¹n : TrÇn Ngäc §¹i – thcs thôy phóc1

Chuyªn ®Ò båi dìng Hsg m«n to¸n 8 – phÇn ®¹i sè(a + b)

5

= a

5

+ 5a

4

b + 10a

3

b

2

+ 10a

2

b

3

+ 10ab

4

+ b

5

II. C¸c vÝ dô

VÝ dô 1. §¬n gi¶n biÓu thøc sau :A = (x + y + z)

3

– (x + y – z)

3

– (y + z – x)

3

– (z + x – y)

3

.Lêi gi¶iA = [(x + y) + z]

3

– [(x + y) – z]

3

– [z – (x – y)]

3

– [z + (x – y)]

3

= [(x + y)

3

+ 3(x + y)

2

z + 3(x + y)z

2

+ z

3

] – [(x + y)

3

– 3(x + y)

2

z+ 3(x + y)z

2

– z

3

] –– [z

3

– 3z

2

(x – y) + 3z(x – y)

2

– (x – y)

3

] – [z

3

+ 3z

2

(x – y) + 3z(x –y)

2

+ (x – y)

3

]= 6(x + y)

2

z – 6z(x – y)

2

= 24xyzVÝ dô 2. Cho x + y = a, xy = b (a

2

≥

4b). TÝnh gi¸ trÞ cña c¸c biÓuthøc sau :a) x

2

+ y

2

; b) x

3

+ y

3

; c) x

4

+ y

4

;d) x

5

+ y

5

Lêi gi¶ia)x

2

+ y

2

= (x + y)

2

– 2xy = a

2

– 2bb)x

3

+ y

3

= (x + y)

3

– 3xy(x + y) = a

3

– 3abc)x

4

+ y

4

= (x

2

+ y

2

)

2

– 2x

2

y

2

= (a

2

– 2b)

2

– 2b

2

= a

4

– 4a

2

b + 2b

2

d)(x

2

+ y

2

)(x

3

+ y

3

) = x

5

+ x

2

y

3

+ x

3

y

2

+ y

5

= (x

5

+ y

5

) + x

2

y

2

(x + y)Hay : (a

2

– 2b)(a

3

– 3ab) = (x

5

+ y

5

) + ab

2

⇒

x

5

+ y

5

= a

5

– 5a

3

b +5ab

2

Chó ý : a

6

+ b

6

= (a

2

)

3

+ (b

2

)

3

= (a

3

)

2

+ (b

3

)

2

a

7

+ b

7

= (a

3

+ b

3

)(a

4

+ b

4

) – a

3

b

3

(a + b)= (a

2

+ b

2

)(a

5

+ b

5

) – a

2

b

2

(a

3

+ b

3

)

VÝ dô 3. Chøng minh c¸c h»ng ®¼ng thøc :a)a

3

+ b

3

+ c

3

– 3abc = (a + b + c)(a

2

+ b

2

+ c

2

– ab – bc – ca) ;b)(a + b + c)

3

– a

3

– b

3

– c

3

= 3(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)Lêi gi¶ia)a

3

+ b

3

+ c

3

– 3abc = (a + b)

3

+ c

3

– 3abc – 3a

2

b – 3ab

2

= (a + b + c)[(a + b)

2

– (a + b)c + c

2

] – 3ab(a + b + c)= (a + b + c) [(a + b)

2

– (a + b)c + c

2

– 3ab]= (a + b + c)(a

2

+ b

2

+ c

2

– ab – bc – ca)b)(a + b + c)

3

– a

3

– b

3

– c

3

= [(a + b + c)

3

– a

3

] – (b

3

+ c

3

)= (b + c)[(a + b + c)

2

+ (a + b + c)a + a

2

] – (b + c)(b

2

– bc + c

2

)= (b + c)(3a

2

+ 3ab + 3bc + 3ca) = 3(b + c)[a(a + b) + c(a + b)]= 3(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)VÝ dô 4. Ph©n tÝch biÓu thøc sau thµnh nh©n tö :A = x

3

– 3(a

2

+ b

2

)x + 2(a

3

+ b

3

)biªn so¹n : TrÇn Ngäc §¹i – thcs thôy phóc2

Chuyªn ®Ò båi dìng Hsg m«n to¸n 8 – phÇn ®¹i sèLêi gi¶i§Æt S = a + b vµ P = ab, th× a

2

+ b

2

=

2

S2P-; a

3

+ b

3

=

3

S3SP-.V× vËy :A = x

3

– 3(

2

S2P-)x + 2(

3

S3SP-) =

3 3 2 3

(xS)(3Sx3S)(6Px6SP)---+-=

2 2 2

(xS)(xSxS)3S(xS)6P(xS)-++--+-=

2 2

(xS)(xSx2S6P)-+-+= (x – a – b)[x

2

+ (a + b)x – 2(a + b)

2

+ 6ab]= (x – a – b)[x

2

+ (a + b)x – 2(a

2

VÝ dô 5. Cho x + y + z = 0. Chøng minh r»ng : 2(x

5

+ y

5

+ z

5

) =5xyz(x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

)Lêi gi¶iV× x + y + z = 0 nªn x + y = –z

⇒

(x + y)

3

= –z

3

Hay x

3

+ y

3

+ 3xy(x + y) = –z

3

⇒

3xyz = x

3

+ y

3

+ z

3

Do ®ã : 3xyz(x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

) = (x

3

+ y

3

+ z

3

)(x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

)= x

5

+ y

5

+ z

5

+ x

3

(y

2

+ z

2

) + y

3

(z

2

+ x

2

) +z

3

(x

2

+ y

2

)Mµ x

2

+ y

2

= (x + y)

2

– 2xy = z

2

– 2xy (v× x + y = –z). T¬ng tù :y

2

+ z

2

= x

2

– 2yz ; z

2

+ x

2

= y

2

– 2zx.V× vËy : 3xyz(x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

) = x

5

+ y

5

+ z

5

+ x

3

(x

2

– 2yz) + y

3

(y

2

–2zx) + z

3

(z

3

– 2xy)= 2(x

5

+ y

5

+ z

5

) – 2xyz(x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

)Suy ra : 2(x

5

+ y

5

+ z

5

) = 5xyz(x

2

+ y

2

+ z

2

) (®pcm)Bµi tËp1.Ph©n tÝch c¸c ®a thøc sau thµnh nh©n tö :a)x

3

+ 4x

2

– 29x + 24 ;b)x

4

+ 6x

3

+ 7x

2

– 6x + 1 ;c)(x

2

– x + 2)

2

+ (x – 2)

2

;d)6x

5

+ 15x

4

+ 20x

3

+ 15x

2

+ 6x + 1 ;e)x

6

+ 3x

5

+ 4x

4

+ 4x

3

+ 4x

2

+ 3x + 1.2.Ph©n tÝch c¸c ®a thøc sau thµnh nh©n tö :a)x

8

+ x

4

+ 1;b)x

10

+ x

5

+ 1 ;c)x

12

+ 1 ;3.Ph©n tÝch c¸c ®a thøc sau thµnh nh©n tö :a)(x + y + z)

3

– x

3

– y

3

– z

3

;b)(x + y + z)

5

– x

5

– y

5

– z

5

.biªn so¹n : TrÇn Ngäc §¹i – thcs thôy phóc3

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