Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
8Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Laser

Laser

Ratings:

4.5

(2)
|Views: 1,587|Likes:
Published by rairaicute

More info:

Published by: rairaicute on Dec 01, 2007
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/03/2010

pdf

text

original

 
RESEARCH PROJECTS:
Related Links
Project Summary
 
Difficulty7 9 TimerequiredShort (several days)PrerequisitesNoneMaterialAvailabilityReadily availableCostLow ($20$50)Safety
Adult supervision recommended. Evenlow-power lasers can causepermanent eye damage. Pleasecarefully review and follow the 
.Objective
 The objective of this experiment is to see if sugarconcentrations in water can be determined using theindex of refraction of the solution.
Introduction
No doubt you have noticed the odd"bending" effect that you see when you put astraw (or pencil) in a glass of water. Thewater refracts the light, so the straw appearsto bend at an angle when you look at theinterface between the air and the water.Compare the two images in Figure 1 and seeif you notice anything different betweenthem.
Figure 1. These two images illustrate refraction byliquids. Which glass contains plain water, and whichglass contains sugar-water? (Wood, 2003)(Images ©Robin Wood, 2003, used with permission.)Snell's Law describes the physics of refraction (seeFigure 2, below). If we follow a light ray (red) as itpasses from air to water, we can see how the lightbends. Air and water each have a different
index of refraction
(symbolized by the variable
n
). Snell'sLaw describes the angle of refraction of alight ray in terms of the angle of incidenceand the index of refraction of each of thematerials through which the light is passing(air and water in this case).
Figure 2. Illustration of Snell's Law (Wood, 2003).(Image © Robin Wood, 2003, used with permission.)In optics, angles are measured from a lineperpendicular to the surface with which the light isinteracting. This line is called the
surface normal
, orsimply, the
normal
(dashed gray line in Figure 2). Theangle of incidence,
θ
1
, and the angle of refraction,
θ
2
,are shown in Figure 2. Snell's Law says that the relativeindex of refraction of the two materials (
RI
=
n
2
/
n
1
) isequal to the the sine of the angle of incidence (sine
θ
1
)divided by the sine of the angle of refraction (sine
θ
2
).What Snell's Law tells us is that the greater the relativeindex of refraction, the more the light bends. The indexof refraction of a liquid depends on the density of theliquid. Dissolving sugar in water results in a solutionwith density greater than that of water alone. Sincesugar water is more dense than plain water, sugarwater should have a higher index of refraction thanplain water. In Figure 1, one glass has plain water andthe other glass has sugar water. Can you tell which iswhich?
In this project, we'll show you how to use thephysics of refraction to measure the sugarcontent of a clear liquid solution (e.g., apple juice, or a clear soda drink). You'll use a laserpointer and a hollow glass prism (which we'llshow you how to make). Figure 3 shows adiagram of the setup.
Figure 3. Diagram of setup for measuring the index of refraction of a liquid using a laser pointer and a hollowtriangular prism (not to scale; based on the diagram inNierer, 2002).When there is no liquid in the prism, the laser light(dotted red line) will shine straight through to a wall(solid black line). When the prism is filled with liquid,the laser light will be refracted (solid blue and redlines). The angle of deviation will be at a minimumwhen the light passing through the prism (solid blueline) is parallel to the base of the prism. You'll have torotate the prism just right so that this is true. Thenyou'll measure two distances,
 x 
and
L
, and use them tocalculate the angle of minimum deviation. From thisangle, you can calculate the index of refraction.Equation 1
is the formula for doing this.
Equation 1 looks complicated at first, but it's actuallynot so bad.
θ
md 
is the angle of minimum deviation,which you will measure (we'll show you how in theExperimental Procedure section).
θ
 p
is the apex angleof the prism. Since the prism is an equilateral triangle,the apex angle is 60°. In equation 2, we've substituted60° for
θ
 p
. In equation 3, we've substituted thenumerical value of the index of refraction of air(
n
air 
= 1.00028). The sine of 30° is 0.5, so we've madethat substitution in equation 3. Finally, we simplify thenumerical terms to produce Equation 4, which is theone you will use. Plug in your measured value for
θ
md 
,add 60°, and multiply the result by one-half. Then takethe sine of the result, and multiply by 2.00056, andyou'll have the desired index of refraction.
Terms, Concepts and Questions to StartBackground Research
 To do this project, you should do research that enablesyou to understand the following terms and concepts:index of refraction,density,prism,Snell's law.
Bibliography
Here are some online sources of information on Snell'sLaw. Although you only need a basic understanding of how Snell's Law works for this project, more advanced
 
sources are included for those who wish to gain a morethorough understanding about the mathematics behindSnell's Law and how it can be derived from Fermat'sPrinciple of Least Time:A simple summary of Snell's Law (the basic "plug in thenumbers and calculate" version that's required for thisproject):Kaiser, P., 2005. "Snell's Law,"
The Joy of VisualPerception
[accessed September 25, 2006]http://www.yorku.ca/eye/snell.htm.A fairly comprehensive tutorial that builds an intuitiveunderstanding of Snell's Law by using high school levelmath:Henderson, T., 2004. "The Mathematics of Refraction,Snell's Law," The Physics Classroom, Glenbrook SouthHigh School, Glenview, IL [accessed September 25,2006]http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/Phys/Class/refrn/u14l2b.html.(This one is only for highly advanced students!) Ahighly mathematical discussion of Snell's Law thatincludes its derivation from Fermat's Principle of Least Time (uses first-order differential calculus):Weisstein, E.W., 2006. "Snell's Law," Eric Weisstein'sWorld of Science [accessed September 25, 2006]http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/SnellsLaw.html.Information on making the hollow prism for this projectcame from:Edmiston, M.D., 2001. "A Liquid Prism for RefractiveIndex Studies," Journal of Chemical Education78(11):1479–1480, [accessed October 2, 2006]available online at:http://www.jce.divched.org/hs/Journal/Issues/2001/Nov/clicSubscriber/V78N11/p1479.pdf . The images illustrating refraction in the Introductionare from Robin Wood's page about the technicalities of making refractive index look correct in images that arerendered by software:Wood, R., 2003. "Refraction Index," [accessed October2, 2006]http://www.robinwood.com/Catalog/Technical/Gen3DTuts/Gen3DPages/RefractionIndex1.html.
Materials and Equipment
 To do this experiment you will need the followingmaterials and equipment:several 1" × 3" glass microscope slides,diamond scribe or glass cutter,ruler,electrical tape,epoxy glue (either 5-minute or 30-minute epoxy),toothpicks,laser pointer,cardboard,tape,tape measure,paper,pencil,piece of string,sugar,water,graduated cylinder,gram scale,calculator with trigonometric functions (sine,arctangent).
Experimental Procedure
Laser Pointer Safety 
Adult supervision recommended. Even low-powerlasers can cause permanent eye damage. Pleasecarefully review and follow the
.
Making the Prism from Microscope Slides
Figure 3, below, shows the sequence of steps you willbe following to make a hollow glass prism in the shapeof an equilateral triangle (from Edmiston, 1999). Theprism will hold a liquid as you measure the liquid'sindex of refraction.Figure 4. Diagram of the sequence of steps formaking a hollow glass prism (equilateraltriangle) from microscope slides. The steps areexplained below. (Edmiston, 1999) The goal is an equilateral prism that can hold liquid. Itwill be constructed from microscope slides and epoxy.Put a piece of black electrical tape across the face of the slide as shown above (Figure 4a). The tape shouldhang over the edge.Score the other side of the microscope slide with adiamond scribe or glass cutter as shown (Figure 4a).Use a straightedge to guide the diamond scribe. Thetwo scribe lines should be one inch apart andperpendicular to the long edge of the slide. (If desired,before scribing you can mark the positions for thescribe lines with marker. The marker can later becleaned off with a small amount of rubbing alcohol on apaper towel.)Now you will break the glass along the scribe lines.Hold the slide on either side of the first scribe line andbend the glass toward the taped side. Bend justenough to break the glass. Repeat for the secondscribe line (Figure 4b).Now bend the glass away from the tape, allowing thetape to stretch (Figure 4c). Continue bending until thetriangle closes.Place the prism on a flat surface to align the bottomedges. Use the overhanging tape to secure the prism inthis configuration (Figure 4d).Adjust the edges of each face so that they aligncorrectly. At each apex of the prism, the inside edgesshould be in contact along their entire vertical length.Follow the manufacturer's instructions for mixing theepoxy cement (usually you mix equal amounts fromeach of two tubes). Use a toothpick to apply epoxy tothe inside corners of the prism to glue the three facestogether (Figure 4e). The corners need to be water-tight, but keep the epoxy in the corners and away from
 
the faces of the prism. Keep the bottom surface flatand allow the epoxy to set.When the epoxy in the corners has set firmly, mix upfresh epoxy and use a toothpick to apply it to thebottom edge of the prism. Glue the prism to a secondmicroscope slide as shown (Figure 4f). The bottomedge needs to be water-tight, but keep the epoxy awayfrom the faces of the prism.Allow the epoxy to set overnight, and then your prismwill be ready for use.
Measuring the Index of Refraction of a Liquid 
Figure 5, below, is a diagram of the setup you will usefor measuring the index of refraction of a liquid. (Notethat the diagram is not to scale.)Figure 5. Diagram of setup for measuring theindex of refraction of a liquid using a laserpointer and a hollow triangular prism (not toscale; based on the diagram in Nierer, 2002). The laser pointer should be set up so that its beam(dotted red line in Figure 5) is perpendicular to anearby wall. You should attach a big piece of paper tothe wall for marking and measuring where the beamhits. The height of the laser pointer should be adjustedso that it hits about half-way up the side of the prism. The laser pointer should be fixed in place. Checkperiodically to make sure that the beam is still hittingits original spot.When the prism is empty (filled only with air), thenplacing it in the path should not divert the beam. Markthe spot where the beam hits the wall when the prismis empty. When the prism is filled with liquid, the laserbeam will be refracted within the prism (solid blueline). The emerging beam (solid red line) will hit thewall some distance away from the original spot of theundiverted beam. You will measure the distance,
 x 
,between these two points (see Figure 5).Figure 6, below, is a more detailed view of the prismwhich illustrates how to measure the angle of minimumdeviation,
θ
md 
. You need to mark points
a
,
b
, and
c
inorder to measure the angle. Points
a
and
b
are easy,because they are project on the wall. Marking point
c
ismore difficult, because it is under the prism. The nextseveral steps describe how to mark point
c
.Figure 6. Detail diagram showing how tomeasure the angle of minimum deviation (notto scale; based on the diagram in Nierer,2002). Tape a sheet of paper to the table, centeredunderneath the prism.With the prism empty, on the sheet of paper mark thepoint where the beam enters the prism (point
inFigure 6). Then mark the point where the beam exitsthe prism (point
e
in Figure 6). Later you will draw aline between
and
e
to show the path of theundiverted beam.On the wall, mark the point where the undiverted laserhits (point
b
in Figure 6). (As long as the laser pointerstays fixed, this point should be remain constantthroughout your experiment. It's a good idea to checkit for each measurement.)Now add liquid to the prism. You want to rotate theprism so that the path of the refracted beam within theprism (solid blue line from
to
in Figure 6) is parallelwith the base of the prism. (A pinch of non-dairycreamer in the liquid can help you visualize the beamwithin the prism, and should not have a significanteffect on the index of refraction of the liquid.) Whenthe prism is rotated correctly, mark the position of theemerging beam on the paper on the wall (point
a
inFigure 6). On the paper on the table, mark the pointwhere the beam emerges from the prism (point
inFigure 6).Now you can move the prism aside. Leave the papertaped in place.Use a ruler to draw a line from point
to point
e
. Thismarks the path of the undiverted beam.Next, you want to extend a line from point
a
(on thewall) through point
(on the table). To do this, stretch astring from point
a
so that it passes over point
. Markthe point (
c
) where the string crosses the line between
and
e
.Measure the distance,
 x 
, between points
a
and
b
, andrecord it in your data table.Measure the distance,
L
, between points
b
and
c
, andrecord it in your data table. The distances you have measure define the angle of minimum deviation,
θ
md 
. The ratio
 x 
/
L
is the tangent of 

Activity (8)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Praveen S Das liked this
Dewdrops_7 liked this
Dewdrops_7 liked this
lavinkg7681 liked this
mar liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->