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Published by Anthony Araracap
Please do not plagiarize my work. This is only to be used as reference for AP Bio. If you have questions message me here and I'll be glad to help!
Please do not plagiarize my work. This is only to be used as reference for AP Bio. If you have questions message me here and I'll be glad to help!

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Published by: Anthony Araracap on May 13, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Anthony AraracapPeriod 4 AP BiologyGenetics of Drosophila Lab ReportBackground:Drosophilia meanogaster or fruit flies are used to study genetics. Their life cycle is complete inabout 12 days at room temperature and they produce large numbers of offspring. Many heredityvariations can be observed with low power magnification. Fruit flies have a small amount of chromosomes(4 pairs) and are easily found in the large salivary gland cells.(Larval stage) Here the
eats all the time. Larvae tunnel into the culturemedium when they eat. The larva will shed its skin as it increases in size. In the last of thethree larval stages, the cells of the salivary glands contain giant chromosomes that can beseen under low power in a microscope.(Pupal stage) Before a larva becomes a pupa it climbs the side of the container. Thelast larval covering then becomes harder and darker, forming the pupal case. Through thiscase the later stages of metamorphosis to an adult fly can be seen. During this stage, the eyesthe wings, and the legs become visible.(Adult stage) When metamorphosis is over, the adult fly emerges form the pupal case.They are fragile and light in color and their wings are not fully expanded. They get darker in about an hour. They live about a month and then die. A female refrains from mating for about 12 days after she emerges from the pupal case. After she mates her receptaclescontain large amounts of sperm and she lays her eggs. Make sure that the first flies youuse are virgins.Purpose:The purpose of this lab was to observe genetic variation in fruit flies. Mutations were alsoobserved. These flies inherited these genetic differences from Monohybrid, Dihybrid, or Sex-linkedcrosses.Hypothesis:If we determine the phenotypes of the first filial generation, then we can determine the parentalgenotype.Materials:
Fruit flies
Light microscope
Petri dish
Place flies onto petri dish in order to observe under a light microscope
Determine which sex the flies are, as well as the characteristics of their eyes and wingsData & Observations:During this lab several observations were noted. First off, males had dark abdomens, whilefemales had lighter, more pointed abdomens. Also, males were usually smaller than the females. Besidesthis, some females had eggs visible outside of their abdomens. Another note was that in the Cross 1 F1generation, curly wings were not sex-linked in the flies. On the other hand, in the Cross 2 F1 generation,the gene for eye color was sex-linked; females were wild type and males were white-eyed.Table 7.1: Cross 1 F1 GenerationPhenotype and SymbolFemalesMalesCurly (Cy)64Straight (Cy+)74Table 7.2: Cross 2 F1 GenerationPhenotype and SymbolFemalesMalesRed eyes (w+)350White eyes (w)036ObservedPhenotypeExpected (E)(o-e)(o-e)^2(o-e)^2/e57 male, wild type70.5-13.5182.252.5982 female, wildtype70.511.5132.251.8849 male andfemale vestigial,wild type4724.08550 male andfemale wild type,aristapedia47390.1919 female vestigial,aristapedia7.831.171.37.1754 vestigial,aristapedia7.83-3.8314.71.88TOTAL:251274.16-7.16399.89.19X2=9.19Analysis:(None)Error Analysis:In this lab some errors may have occurred. For example, when sexing the flies, some may havelooked like female fruit flies, but were actually males. Also, some errors in counting may have occurred as
well, such as mistaking the characteristics of the flies could have altered the results. Incorrect calculationsmay also have caused an inaccuracy in results.Discussion:The hypothesis in this lab was “If we determine the phenotypes of the first filial generation, thenwe can determine the parental genotype” was accepted. Based off the results from the F1 generation, 10fruit flies inherited curly wings, while the other 11 had straight wings. Using the parental cross, the F1generation was predicted to have a 50:50 chance of having either curly or straight wings. It was alsodetermined that the mutant gene was not sex linked because there was no dominant sex that had curlywings. Estimating the ratio of curly to straight yields about half and half. Thus, the hypothesis can besupported because the ratio was 1:1. Meanwhile, in cross 3, the expected numbers were calculated froma 9:3:3:1 ratio while the observed numbers were given. By using Chi square test, the calculated X2number was 9.16 and the X2 probability X2 number was 7.82. The X2 calculated number was larger thanthe X2 probability(9.16>7.82)--as the chi-square increases the probability decreases; solely usingchances cannot explain the deviations that were observed and therefore gives reason to doubt theoriginal hypothesis or question the accuracy of the data collection. Thus, the null hypothesis for cross 3“Based off of a given number of flies, 9/16 of the flies will have the dominant phenotypes, 3/16 of the flieswill have have dominant and recessive, and 1/16 will have recessive phenotypes” was rejected.Discussion Questions:1)2)F1 and F2 ratios:Cross 1:

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