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Life Processes

Life Processes

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Published by Deepak Kumar
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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Deepak Kumar on May 13, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/13/2012

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LIFE PROCESSES SA:-I 
Life Processes 
 
Page 1 
BiologyClass:-XChapter-I Life Processes 
1.
 
The living things shows the following characteristics :
 
They can breathe.
 
They can grow.
 
They show movement or locomotion.
 
They have sensation.
 
Various life processes occur in them.Whereas non-living things do not show these characteristics.2.
 
Virus is non-living but when they infect their host then they become living e.g. HIV3.
 
Tissues are made up of cells which have smaller components made up of molecules.
WHAT ARE LIFE PROCESSES?
 
The processes which together perform the maintenance of all body functions arecalled as life processes.1.
 
Energy is needed for life processes which come from outside the body.2.
 
Transfer of source of energy i.e. food from outside the body to inside is calledas Nutrition.3.
 
Most of the food sources are carbon based e.g. carbohydrates.4.
 
Oxidizing-reducing reactions are chemical means to breakdown complex foodto simple form.5.
 
In unicellular organisms food intake, exchange of gases and removal of wastetakes p0lace by diffusion e.g. Amoeba.6.
 
In multicellular animals there are specialized tissue to perform differentfunctions such as intake of food, exchanger of gases and removal of wasteproducts.
 
 
LIFE PROCESSES SA:-I 
Life Processes 
 
Page 2
NUTRITION
Energy is needed to maintain a state of order in the body. The source of energyis the food.
How do living things get their food?
(a)
 
Autotrophic organisms such as green plants, blue green algae prepare theirfood on their own by the help of the CO
2
and H
2
O in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll (present in chloroplast)(b)
 
The prepared food is carbohydrates which provide energy to plants.
 
Carbohydrates are stored in the form of starch.
 
In our body energy is stored in the form of glycogen,6Co
2
+ 12H
2
o C
6
H
12
O
6
+6O
2
+6H
2
O
Events in photosynthesis
a.
 
Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.b.
 
Conversion of light energy to chemical energy.c.
 
Splitting of H
2
O into H
2
& O
2
 d.
 
Reduction of CO
2
to carbohydrates.
 
In desert plants CO
2
is taken up at night and acted upon by the energy absorbed bythe chlorophyll during the day.
 
Uptake of CO
2
in plants takes place by stomata present in leaves, stems.
 
They are tiny pores for gaseous exchange
 
Guard cells of stomata swell up when water flows in them and pores are open. Poresare closed if guard cells shrink.
 
Water is taken up from soil by roots.
 
N
2
, Mg, P, Fe are taken up from soil.
 
Nitrogen is required for synthesis of proteins.
 
N
2
taken up in the form of nitrates nitrites.
 
Nitrogen fixing bacteria convert atmospheric N
2
to organic compounds available toplants.
 
 
LIFE PROCESSES SA:-I 
Life Processes 
 
Page 3
 
The organisms which obtain their food from plants directly or indirectly
 
Some fungi like bread mold, yeast and mushroom break down the food outside thebody and take in digested food.
 
The parasites derive nutrition from plants or animals without killing them. E.g. cuscuta(amarbel) , hicks , lice, leeches and tape worms.
Types of Heterotrophic Nutrition:-
1.
 
Saprophytic Nutrition
(“sapro” means rotten)
 
Nutrition in which organisms derived their nutrition from dead and decayingorganic matter. E.g. fungi and bacteria
2.
 
Holozoic Nutrition
(“holos” means entire and “zoon” means animal)
 
Complete animal life nutrition.It consists of:-
o
 
Ingestion
o
 
Digestion
o
 
Absorption
o
 
Assimilation
o
 
Egestion
3.
 
Parasitic NutritionNutrition in which organisms derived their nutrition from other livingorganisms. E.g. leech, tapeworm, plasmodium
How do organisms obtain their nutrition?
a.
 
In single celled organisms food is taken up by entire surface.b.
 
Amoeba has finger like projections to take in food called as pseupodia. Thefood is broken down and absorbed.c.
 
In paramecium food is taken by movement of cilia present on its entire surface.

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