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Table Of Contents

Table 1.1 World Electricity Consumption with Estimations
Table 1.2 Wind Power Installations Worldwide
Table 1.3 Wind Energy Capacity Leaders Worldwide by End 2001
Figure 1.3 Power transfer in a wind energy converter
Figure 2.2 Nacelle
Figure 2.3 Horizontal axis wind turbines according to number of blades
Table 2.1 Number of Blades for Commercial Wind Turbine Designs
2.2.1. GEAR BOX
Figure 2.4 A typical gear
2.2.2. V / Hz CONVERTER
Figure 2.5 AC – AC signal conversion
2.2.3. YAW ASSEMBLY
2.2.4. PITCH CONTROL MECHANISM
2.2.5. ELECTRONIC CONTROLLER
Figure 2.6 A typical wind turbine in detail (VESTAS V27 / 225 kW
3.1. AERODYNAMICS OF WIND TURBINES
3.1.1. AERODYNAMIC FORCES
Figure 3.2 Lift and drag forces acting on rotor blade
3.1.1.1. DRAG FORCES
3.1.1.2. LIFT FORCES
3.1.2. AERO-FOILS
Figure 3.3 Components of wind power acting on rotor blade
3.2 ENERGY AND POWER IN THE WIND
3.2.1. POWER COEFFICIENT
Figure 3.5 Wind flow through a wind turbine
3.2.2. TIP SPEED RATIO
Table 3.1 Speed Definitions
3.2.3. EFFECT OF THE NUMBER OF BLADES
3.3. GENERATOR THEORY
3.3.1.1. THEORY:
Figure 3.8 The equivalent circuit for DC motors
3.3.1.2. DC GENERATOR APPLICATIONS IN WIND TURBINES
3.3.2. SYNCHRONOUS AC MACHINES (ALTERNATORS)
3.3.2.1. THEORY
Figure 3.9 A salient six-pole rotor for a synchronous machine
Figure 3.10 A non-salient two-pole rotor for a synchronous machine
3.3.2.2. THE ROTATION SPEED OF A SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
3.3.2.3. INTERNAL VOLTAGE OF A SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
3.3.2.4. THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN ALTERNATOR
Figure 3.12 A simple circuit for alternators
Figure 3.13 The per-phase equivalent circuit for synchronous generators
3.3.3. ASYNCHRONOUS (INDUCTION) AC MACHINES
Figure 3.14 Cutaway diagram for a wound-rotor induction machine
Figure 3.15 Cutaway diagram for a squirrel-cage induction machine
Figure 3.16 Transformer model for an induction machine
a transformer
3.3.3.1.1. ROTOR CIRCUIT MODEL
Figure 3.18 The rotor circuit model for induction machines
concentrated in resistor RR
3.3.3.1.2. FINAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
Figure 3.20 The per-phase equivalent circuit for induction machines
Figure 3.21 Torque-Speed curve for a MW-size induction machine
Table 3.2 Common Synchronous Speeds for Generators
3.3.4. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN GENERATORS FOR WIND
3.3.4.1. DUAL GENERATORS
3.3.4.2. DIRECT-DRIVE GENERATORS
3.4. GRID INTEGRATION
3.4.1. FREQUENCY CONVERTER SYSTEMS
Figure 3.22 Electrical energy conversion by power converters
Figure 3.23 Basic wiring diagram for direct frequency converters
Figure 3.24 Indirect frequency converters
3.4.1.1.1. SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES
3.4.1.1.2. THYRISTORS
3.4.1.1.3. TRANSISTORS
semiconductors;
Semiconductors
3.4.1.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF POWER CONVERTERS
• Classification by axis of rotation
4.1. CLASSIFICATION BY AXIS OF ROTATION
Figure 4.1 Horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines
4.1.1. HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINES (HAWT)
4.2.2. CONSTANT ROTOR SPEED
4.3. CLASSIFICATION BY POWER CONTROL
Figure 4.4 Operating regions of a typical wind turbine
Table 4.1 Descriptions of Operational Regions for a Typical Wind Turbine
Figure 4.5 Rotor diameter vs. power output
Figure 4.6 Swept area by rotor blades
4.3.1. PITCH CONTROL
Figure 4.7 Pitch Control
4.3.2. STALL CONTROL
Table 4.2 Pitch vs. Stall Issues
Figure 4.9 Stall & Pitch controlled power schemes
4.4. CLASSIFICATION BY LOCATION OF INSTALLATION
4.4.1 ON-SHORE WIND TURBINES
4.4.2 OFF-SHORE WIND TURBINES
mechanism
5.1.4 ANGULAR SPEED CALCULATION BLOCK
Figure 5.18 Tip speed ratio vs. power coefficient
Table 5.1 Modelled Wind Turbine Simulation Results
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
P. 1
MODELING AND SIMULATION OF WIND TURBINES

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF WIND TURBINES

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Published by: m33m00 on May 13, 2011
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