on them large flights of arrows from the those high and craggy precipices, obtained easy conquests.3 After Dionysus had subdued the Indians, he formed an alliance with them and the Amazons, andtook them into his service. When he penetrated into Bactria, whose boundary is the river Saranges, hefound that the Bactrians had possessed themselves of the mountains above the river, in order to disputehis passage. Encamping therefore on the river side, opposite the enemy, he ordered the Amazons andthe Bacchants to ford it; expecting that the Bactrians, in contempt of the women, would quit their postson the mountains, and attack them; which they accordingly did. The women retreated, and werepursued by the enemy to the opposite bank. Then Dionysus at the head of his troops furiously attackedthe Bactrians, and as they were surprised and impeded by the water, defeated them with great slaughter,and crossed the river himself without any further danger.
Pan, a general of Dionysus, was the first who created a regular system for the marshalling of an army.He invented thephalanx, and arrranged it with a right and left wing; from which he is usuallyrepresented with horns. Victory always belonged to the strongest sword, until he pointed the way toconquest by artifice and manoeuvre.2 While he was in a wooded hollow, Dionysus was informed by his scouts that an immense army ofthe enemy was encamped a little above him. This was alarming news; but he was soon relieved of hisworries by Pan, who ordered the whole army, in the silence of the night and on a given signal, to giveout a loud shout. The surrounding rocks, and the hollows of the forest re-echoed the sound, andimposed on the enemy a fear that his forces were infinitely more numerous than they were; seized byanxiety, they abandoned their camp and fled. From the circumstances of this stratagem, the nymphEcho has been supposed by the poets to be the mistress of Pan; and hence also all pointless andimaginary fears are called panics.
Heracles was determined to remove the race of Centaurs from Pelion, but he was inclined to act on thedefensive, rather than commence hostilities. He resided for a short time with Pholus, and opened a jarof fragrant wine, which he and his companions secretly watched. The neighbouring Centaurs, alluredby the smell, flocked together to the cave of Pholus, and seized the wine. Then Heracles, to punish thecrimes of these thieves and robbers, attacked and slew them. [
Diodorus, 4.12'3]2 To avoid encountering the superior strength of the Erymanthian boar, Heracles had recourse toartifice. As the beast lay in a valley, which was full of snow, he annoyed him with stones from above.The boar at length roused himself in anger, and with great violence sprang forward, but sank into thesnow. While he was thus entangled in the snow, and unable to exert himself, he became an easy preyfor his assailant.3 In his expedition against Troy, Heracles advanced to give the enemy battle as soon as he landed; andat the same time he ordered the pilots to put back a little to sea. The Trojan infantry soon gave way,while their cavalry pushed to the sea, in order to possess themselves of the ships; but they were not ableto capture the ships, because they were floating a little off from the land. Heracles came in pursuit ifthem, and thus hemmed in by the enemy on one side and the sea on the other, they fell an easy victimto the conquerors.4 In India Heracles adopted a daughter, whom he called Pandaeē. To her he allotted the southern partof India which is situated by the sea, dividing it into three hundred and sixty-five cantons. He imposedon these cantons a daily tax; and he ordered each canton in turn, on their stated day, to pay the royalstipend. So that if any of them refused the tax, the queen might depend on the others, because they were