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Correlation and Regression

# Correlation and Regression

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Published by Pallavi Singh

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Published by: Pallavi Singh on May 15, 2011
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Correlation & RegressionJeff Sinn, Winthrop University, SPSS Guide – Correlation & Regression
(rev 9/6)
SPSS Guide: Correlation & Regression

Once the data are entered, go to
Analyze, Correlation, Bivariate
to get this dialogue box.Move the variables (quantitativeonly) that you wish to correlateinto the variables box and hit
OK
.
Correlations
1.775**.368-.637*.003.239.02612121212.775**1.585*-.360.003.046.25112121212.368.585*1.055.239.046.86612121212-.637*-.360.0551.026.251.86612121212Pearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NPearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NPearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NPearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NtestscrstudyingSATabsencestestscrstudyingSATabsencesCorrelation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).**.Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).*.
This is a correlation matrix. It gives resultsfor
six

correlations.

In this case, the p-value is below themagic .05 so we
REJECT
the Ho.[We think absences really docorrelate negatively with test score].
We’re HAPPY!!

In this case, the p-value is NOTbelow the magic .05 so we
RETAIN
the Ho. [We are NOTconfident that there is a correlationbetween SAT and test score].
We’re SAD!!
Statistical Hypotheses
Every r value (a sample statistic) strives to represent
ρ

(The actual correlation value in the population).When r gets bigger, we get more confident that therereally is a correlation. We know one of two thingsmust be true.H
0
:
ρ

= 0 [There is NO actual correlation]
H
A
:
ρ

0 [This is a correlation]
KEY POINT: If p (the middle number) drops below .05, we REJECT the Ho. This makes us happy. Wewant to reject the null hypothesis because it means we have evidence that we found a true relationship.We explain a finding as follows:
The [research] hypothesis was supported. Absences correlate significantlywith Test Score, r (10) = -.637, p
.05.
Note: More on this later.

Degrees of freedom (df) = n-2.

You can ignore info above thediagonal. It’s redundant.
The r-value
. Indicates strength anddirection (
±
) of the correlation.Bigger is better. The “*” means wecan reject the null hypothesis (Ho).
The p-value
. Probability that you’dsee an r-value of this size just bychance. Smaller is better. Reject Ho if p
.05 [e.g., .046 is
.05, so Reject.]
Number
of pairs in sample. Degreesof freedom (df) equals n-2.

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