Holographic Data Storage Systems
LAMBERTUS HESSELINK, SERGEI S. ORLOV,
MATTHEW C. BASHAW
In this paper, we discuss fundamental issues underlying holo-graphic data storage: grating formation, recording and readout of thick and thin holograms, multiplexing techniques, signal-to-noiseratio considerations, and readout techniques suitable for conven-tional, phase conjugate, and associative search data retrieval. Next,we consider holographic materials characteristics for digital datastorage, followed by a discussion on photorefractive media, ﬁxingtechniques, and noise in photovoltaic and other media with a localresponse. Subsequently, we discuss photopolymer materials, fol-lowed by a discussion on system tradeoffs and a section on signal processing and en/decoding techniques, succeeded by a discussionon electronic implementations for control, signal encoding, and re-covery.We proceed further bypresentingsigniﬁcantdemonstrationsof digital holographic systems. We close by discussing the outlook for future holographic data storage systems and potential applica-tions for which holographic data storage systems would be partic-ularly suited.
Diffraction gratings, gratings, high density datastorage, holographic data storage, holographic recording mate-rials, holography, optical data storage, optical storage materials, photopolymer media, photorefractive media, volumetric datastorage.
Optical data storage is a commercial success story. Eachyear billions of recordable disks are sold worldwide, and inalmost every household with a computer there is a CD-ROMor CD-recordable drive. The industry published roadmapshows future DVD products to reach capacities of near 100GB on a disk, and data transfer rates exceeding 300 Mb/ssometime in the latter half of the current decade, shown inFig. 1. Such high capacities are obtained by using a veryhigh numerical aperture (NA) optical stylus for reading data
Manuscript received March 7, 2003; revised March 9, 2004. This work was primarily supported by the Defense Advanced Research ProjectsAgency Industry/University PRISM and HDSS Programs and, subsequentto 2000, in part by the Japanese Science and Technology program.L. Hesselink and S. S. Orlov are with the Solid State Photonics Lab,Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA94305-4070 USA (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).M. C. Bashaw is with Lockheed Martin Corporation, Integrated Systems& Solutions, San Jose, CA 95134 USA.Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/JPROC.2004.831212
Optical roadmap. (Courtesy TDK, with permission).
from and writing data onto the optical disk. Blue lasersachieve spot sizes of a few hundred micrometers, providingapproximately 25 GB of storage capacity per layer. Up tofour layers—two on each side—increase capacity to near100 GB per disk. To further improve capacity and transferrates, several options are available, including increasing theNA beyond 0.85, reducing the wavelength below 400 nm,or adding more layers. All these options present signiﬁcantobstacles. Additional improvements in NA require morecostly and complicated optical systems for an additional40–50% gain in NA, leading to doubling in capacity. Shorterwavelength lasers are not commercially available and re-quire special optical materials that are transparent below 400nm. Increasing the number of layers also proves difﬁcultfor a variety of reasons, the most signiﬁcant one beingmanufacturability and complexity of implementation for themedia, optical stylus, and the associated optomechanicalsystem for tracking and focusing. The industry, therefore,has been researching new methods for extending the opticaldata storage roadmap well beyond 100 GB per disk.Two promising candidates are near-ﬁeld recording andholography. In near-ﬁeld recording approaches, the NA of the optical stylus is made larger than one, resulting in verysmall spot sizes approaching dimensions less than 100 nm.The focusing spot is near to the optical lens, requiring closeproximity between the optical head and disk, making remov-ability of the media more difﬁcult, as small contaminants
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PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 92, NO. 8, AUGUST 2004 1231