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Introduction: Three Worlds
1.1 Worlds 1 and 2
1.2 World 3
1.3 Problems
The Quantum Postulates
2.1 Postulate 1: The Quantum State
2.2 Postulate 2: Observables, Operators, and Eigenstates
2.3 Postulate 3: Quantum Superpositions
2.3.1 Discrete Eigenvalues
2.3.2 Continuous Eigenvalues
2.5 Problems
What Is a Quantum State?
3.1 Probabilities, Averages, and Uncertainties
3.1.1 Probabilities
3.1.2 Averages
3.1.3 Uncertainties
3.2 The Statistical Interpretation
3.3 Bohr, Einstein, and Hidden Variables
3.3.1 Background
3.3.2 Fundamental Issues
3.3.3 Einstein Revisited
3.4 Problems
The Structure of Quantum States
4.1 Mathematical Preliminaries
4.1.1 Vector Spaces
4.1.2 Function Spaces
4.2 Dirac’s Bra-ket Notation
4.2.1 Bras and Kets
4.2.2 Labeling States
4.3 The Scalar Product
4.3.1 Quantum Scalar Products
4.3.2 Discussion
4.4 Representations
4.4.1 Basics
4.4.2 Superpositions and Representations
4.4.3 Representational Freedom
4.5 Problems
Operators
5.2 Hermitian Operators
5.2.2 Hermitian Operators: Deﬁnition and Properties
5.2.3 Wavefunctions and Hermitian Operators
5.3 Projection and Identity Operators
5.3.1 Projection Operators
5.3.2 The Identity Operator
5.4 Unitary Operators
5.5 Problems
6.2 States as Vectors
6.3 Operators as Matrices
6.3.1 An Operator in Its Eigenbasis
6.3.2 Matrix Elements and Alternative Bases
6.3.3 Change of Basis
6.3.4 Adjoint, Hermitian, and Unitary Operators
6.4 Eigenvalue Equations
6.5 Problems
Commutators and Uncertainty Relations
7.1 The Commutator
7.1.1 Deﬁnition and Characteristics
7.1.2 Commutators in Matrix Mechanics
7.2 The Uncertainty Relations
7.2.1 Uncertainty Products
7.2.2 General Form of the Uncertainty Relations
7.2.3 Interpretations
7.2.4 Reﬂections
7.3 Problems
Angular Momentum
8.1 Angular Momentum in Classical Mechanics
8.2 Basics of Quantum Angular Momentum
8.2.1 Operators and Commutation Relations
8.2.2 Eigenstates and Eigenvalues
8.2.3 Raising and Lowering Operators
8.3 Physical Interpretation
8.3.1 Measurements
8.6 Problems
The Time-Independent Schr¨odinger Equation
9.1 An Eigenvalue Equation for Energy
9.2 Using the Schr¨odinger Equation
9.2.1 Conditions on Wavefunctions
9.2.2 An Example: the Inﬁnite Potential Well
9.3 Interpretation
9.3.1 Energy Eigenstates in Position Space
9.3.2 Overall and Relative Phases
9.4 Potential Barriers and Tunneling
9.4.1 The Step Potential
9.4.2 The Step Potential and Scattering
9.4.3 Tunneling
9.5 What’s Wrong with This Picture?
9.6 Problems
10.1.3 Argand Diagrams and the Role of the Phase
10.2 The Phase in Quantum Mechanics
10.2.1 Phases and the Description of States
10.2.2 Phase Changes and Probabilities
10.2.3 Unitary Operators Revisited
10.2.4 Unitary Operators, Phases, and Probabilities
10.3 Wavefunctions
10.4 Reﬂections
10.5 Problems
Time Evolution
11.1 The Time-Dependent Schr¨odinger Equation
11.2 How Time Evolution Works
11.2.1 Time Evolving a Quantum State
11.2.2 Unitarity and Phases Revisited
11.3 Expectation Values
11.3.1 Time Derivatives
11.3.2 Constants of the Motion
11.4 Energy-Time Uncertainty Relations
11.4.1 Conceptual Basis
11.5 Problems
12.1 What is a Wavefunction?
12.1.1 Eigenstates and Coeﬃcients
12.1.2 Representations and Operators
12.2 Changing Representations
12.2.1 Change of Basis Revisited
12.2.2 From x to p and Back Again
12.2.3 Gaussians and Beyond
12.3 Phases and Time Evolution
12.3.1 Free Particle Evolution
12.3.2 Wavepackets
12.4 Bra-ket Notation
12.4.1 Quantum States
12.4.2 Eigenstates and Transformations
12.5 Epilogue
A.1 Complex Numbers and Functions
A.2 Diﬀerentiation
A.3 Integration
A.4 Diﬀerential Equations
Quantum Measurement
The Harmonic Oscillator
C.1 Energy Eigenstates and Eigenvalues
C.2 The Number Operator and its Cousins
C.3 Photons as Oscillators
Unitary Transformations
D.1 Unitary Operators
D.2 Finite Transformations and Generators
D.3 Continuous Symmetries
D.3.1 Symmetry Transformations
D.3.2 Symmetries of Physical Law
D.3.3 System Symmetries
Bibliography
Index
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Essential.quantum.mechanics.2008 Bowman 019228922

# Essential.quantum.mechanics.2008 Bowman 019228922

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