Molecular Genetics ReviewDNA shapeBacteria- circular loopEukaryote- linear packaging into chromosomes during metaphaseDNA replication
. Each original strand serves as atemplate for a complementary strand.
unwinds the strand, creating replication forks at different origins of replication in theDNA strand. Complementary nucleotides are added by
. It only works in the3’->5’ direction.The new DNA strand is built continuously on the
. The strand away from thereplication fork, the
, must be built discontinuously from Okasaki fragments. Thefragments are then joined together by
.Central DogmaDNA-> mRNA-> polypeptide-> trait
= DNA ->mRna (nucleus)The
is a sequence of DNA to which RNA polymerase attaches to starttranscription.After transcription, the RNA strand undergoes
. Introns, noncoding parts, areremoved. A 5’ cap and poly A tail is added to opposite ends of the strands for recognition.Methylation -> makes transcription difficultAcetylation -> allows transcriptionA
suppresses the transcription of a gene.
= mRna -> polypeptide (cytoplasm)
molecules provide energy for translation.Ribosomes assemble a polypeptide chain by translating nucleotide triplets,
, intospecific amino acids. The amino acids are carried to the ribosome by
. When polypeptideis finished, the chain is released by hydrolysis and the translation assembly falls apart.Bacteria