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Molecular Genetics Review

Molecular Genetics Review

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Published by buenanueva
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Published by: buenanueva on May 16, 2011
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Molecular Genetics ReviewDNA shapeBacteria- circular loopEukaryote- linear packaging into chromosomes during metaphaseDNA replication
DNA Replication
follows the
semi-conservative model
. Each original strand serves as atemplate for a complementary strand.
Helicase
unwinds the strand, creating replication forks at different origins of replication in theDNA strand. Complementary nucleotides are added by
DNA polymerase
. It only works in the3’->5’ direction.The new DNA strand is built continuously on the
leading strand
. The strand away from thereplication fork, the
lagging strand
, must be built discontinuously from Okasaki fragments. Thefragments are then joined together by
DNA ligase
.Central DogmaDNA-> mRNA-> polypeptide-> trait
Transcription
= DNA ->mRna (nucleus)The
promoter region
is a sequence of DNA to which RNA polymerase attaches to starttranscription.After transcription, the RNA strand undergoes
RNA processing
. Introns, noncoding parts, areremoved. A 5’ cap and poly A tail is added to opposite ends of the strands for recognition.Methylation -> makes transcription difficultAcetylation -> allows transcriptionA
repressor 
suppresses the transcription of a gene.
Translation
= mRna -> polypeptide (cytoplasm)
GTP
molecules provide energy for translation.Ribosomes assemble a polypeptide chain by translating nucleotide triplets,
codons
, intospecific amino acids. The amino acids are carried to the ribosome by
tRNA
. When polypeptideis finished, the chain is released by hydrolysis and the translation assembly falls apart.Bacteria

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