Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Communication With Extraterestrial Intelligence

Communication With Extraterestrial Intelligence

Ratings: (0)|Views: 11 |Likes:
Published by Ken Connor

More info:

Published by: Ken Connor on May 16, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/16/2011

pdf

text

original

 
,
'
,
'
EXTRATERRESTRIALINTELLIGENCE
fora5000-year
gap.
..
(By
the
way,
if
they
are
as
much
as50
years
behind
us,forgetit!)
It
is
quite
possible
that
"others"
havesatellite
probes
in
space,
retransmittingto
"them"
anything
that
sounds
non
randomto
the
probe.
But
theyhaveprobably
called
us
severalthousand
years
ago,
and
arewaiting
for
an
answer;
orworse
yet,
they
have
given
up;
or,
moreprobably,
they
havereachedsuch
impressivetechnological
advances
that
theyhave
destroyedthemselves.'
Epsilon
Eridaniand
Tau
Ceti
were
thetargets
onwhich
Dr.
Drake
focussedhis
attention
in
the
spring
of1960in
Project
Ozma,
an
attempt
to
detect
possible
intelligent
signalsfrom
outer
space.
The
frequencyselected
for
listening
was
1420.405752
megacycles
per
second,ora
wave
length
of21em.
Thisparticular
frequency,pos
tulated
independently
by
two
professorson
the
faculty
ofCornell
University,
Giuseppe
Cocconi
and
PhilipMorrison,
happens
tobe
the
radiation
frequencyof
atomic
orfree
hydrogenwhichpermeates
space
in
great
clouds;
moreover,
this
frequency
is
within
the
range
ofradiofrequencies
able
to
pass
through
the
earth's
atmosphere.Presumably,
the
significanceof
this
frequencywouldbe
known
to
other
intelligentbeingsin
the
universe
who
understand
radio
theory.
We're
still
talking
about
radio
waves
as
the
communication
medium;
other
possible
mediamight
bemasers,lasers,or
the
as
yet
undiscovered
and
unnamed"rasers."
Atechnology
superior
to
oursmight
even
have
learnedhowto
modulate
a
beam
of
neutrinos
(weightless,
uncharged
particles
that
physicists
on
earth
find
it
difficult
even
to
detect);
ifso,
"they"
mayhave
to
wait
a
century
or
two
beforewe
learn
howtobuilda
neutrino
receiver.
If
another
civilizationwere
trying
to
establish
communicationwith
us,itwouldfirst
embark
on
attention-getting
signalsof
such
a
nature
that
wecoulddistinguish
them
from
random
cosmicnoise;oncewereceivearecognizablesignal,we
have
agood
chance
of
understanding
the
message.
For
example,
they
could
start
withtrains
ofsignalscorrespondingto
thenatural
numbers
1,
2,3,
...
,followed
perhaps
by
prime
numbers.
They
mightcontinuewithequal-lengthextended
signalsconsisting
ofstart
andstop
impulses,
with
occasionalpulsesin
zInthisconnection,ProfessorIosifShklovsky,Russia'sgreatestradioastronomer,
has
thefollowingtosayintheSeptember1965issueof
SovietLife:
..Profoundcrisesliein
wait
foradevelopingcivilization
and
oneof
them
maywellprovefatal.Wearealreadyfamiliar
with
severalsuchcritical[situations]:(a)Self-destructionasaresultofathermonuclearcatastropheorsome
other
discoverywhichmayhaveunpredictable
and
uncontrollableconsequences.(b)Geneticdanger.(c)Overproductionofinformation.(d)Restrictedcapacityoftheindividual'sbrainwhichcanleadtoexcessivespecialization,withconsequentdangersofdegeneration.(e)Acrisisprecipitatedbythecreationofartificialintelligentbeings."
108
-
 
(:
L.
D.
CALLIMAHOS
between;
when
these
signals
are
alignedflush
over
one
another,they
would
showacircle,
the
Pythagorean
Theorem,
or
similargeometric
design.
Theseattention-getting
signalswouldbefollowed
by
early
"language
lessons,"interspersed
withitems
of
technical
information
to
helpbring
us
upto
the
levelof
our
superiors,
"them."
It
may
be
assumed
that
the
senseof
sight,
or
an
equivalent,
ispossessed
by
all
higher
formsoflife;
the
problems
of
communication
could
thus
be
greatly
simplified
throughthemedium
ofa
"raster"
representationsuch
as
that
ofatelevisionscreen.
After
aconference
held
at
Green
Bank
in1961
to
discuss
the
possibilityof
communication
with
other
planets,
one
ofthe
participants,Bernard
M.Oliver,
made
up
a
hypothetical
messageon
theraster
principle.
The
message,consistingof1271
binary
digits
or
"bits,"
is
shown
inFig.
1.
Since1271
has
but
two
prime
factors,31
and
41,wewould
naturally
beledto
write
outthe
messagein
raster
form,in41linesof31
bits
each,
orin31linesof41
bits
each;
thelatter
caserevealsa
greaternonrandom
nessin
the
patterns
disclosed,
indicating
that
these
are
the
correct
dimensions.
In
Fig.2is
the
write-out
of
the
message,in
which
thebinary
1's
have
beenreplaced
bya
dot
and
the
O's
leftas
blank
spaces.
Now
for
itsinterpretation.
There
are
dots
at
the
fourcornersof
the
pictogram
asreference
points,
markingthe
outlines
of
the
rectangle.At
theupper
left
isa
representation
of
the
sun;directly
underneath
ina
column
aredots
representing
8
planets,
identifiedby
theappropriatebinary
coding
to
their
left,
preceded
by
a
binarypoint
asa
marker.
The
erect,
two-leggedbeings
illustratedare
obviouslybisexual
andmammalian;
one
hand
of
the
male
figure
points
to
the
fourth
planet
where
they
ap
parently
reside.
At
thetop
of
the
pictogram
may
beseen
representations
of
hydrogen,
carbon,
and
oxygen
atoms,indicating
that
the
chemical
structure
oflifeon
theirplanet
issimilartoours.
Fromthethird
planet
there
emergesa
wavy
line,showing
that
itis
covered
withwater;
the
representation
ofafishshows
that
theymusthave
visitedus
and
therefore
have
spacetravel.
One
hand
of
the
femalefigure
points
toasix
(preceded
by
the
usualbinarypoint),
perhaps
implying
that
thereare
sixfingerson
eachhand;
we
could
thereforeassume
that
their
numbersystem
is
probably
to
the
base
12.At
the
right
of
the
femalefigure
may
beseena
bracket,
in
the
middleofwhichiselevenin
binary
form
(preceded
by
a
binary
point):
thisimplies
that
the
beings
are
11
units
high.A
reasonable
interpretation
is
that
theunit
is21cm.,
the
wave
length
of
the
transmission,making
themabout
7
~ I . !
feettall,
whichshould
beall
right
for
average
Martians.
In
1952
the
Britishmathematician
Lancelot
Hogben
delivered
anaddress
before
the
British
Interplanetary
Society
entitled
"Astra
glossa,or
First
Steps
inCelestial
Syntax."
Hogbenpointed
out
that
number
109

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->