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Biography

Biography

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Published by pramod
Short biography of our Freedom fighters.
Short biography of our Freedom fighters.

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Published by: pramod on May 16, 2011
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DR. RAJENDRA PRASAD
Date of Birth : Dec 3, 1884Date of Death : Feb 28, 1963Place of Birth : Zeradei, BiharTenure Order : 1st PresidentDr. Rajendra Prasad was the first President of India. Rajendra Prasad was a great freedom-fighter,and the architect of the Indian Constitution, having served as President of the Constituent Assemblythat drafted the Constitution of the Republic from 1948 to 1950. He had also served as a CabinetMinister briefly in the first Government of Independent India. He was a crucial leader of the IndianIndependence Movement. Prasad was born in Jiradei, in the Siwan district of Bihar. His father,Mahadev Sahay, was a Persian and Sanskrit language scholar; his mother, Kamleshwari Devi, was adevout lady who would tell stories from the Ramayana to her son. At the age of 5, the youngRajendra Prasad was sent to a Maulavi for learning Persian. After that he was sent to Chapra ZillaSchool for further primary studiesHe was married at the age of 12 to Rajvanshi Devi. He then went on to study at R.K. Ghosh'sAcademy in Patna to be with his older brother Mahendra Prasad. Soon afterward, however, herejoined the Chapra Zilla School, and it was from there that he passed the entrance examination of Calcutta University, at the age of 18. He stood first in the first division of that examination. He then joined the Presidency College, Calcutta. He was initially a student of science and his teachersincluded J.C.Bose and Prafulla Chandra Roy. Later he decided to switch his focus to the arts. AcharyaPrafulla Chandra Roy, who was impressed by his intellect and dedication asked him on the occasion"Why have you deserted your class?." Prasad lived with his brother in the Eden Hindu Hostel. Aplaque still commemorates his stay in that room. He had been initiated into the Swadeshi movementby his brother. He then joined the Dawn Society run by Satish Chandra Mukherjee, and SisterNivedita. In 1911, he joined the A.I.C.C. However, his family estate was in bad condition. He waslooked upon as the provider. But he sought permission from his brother in a letter to join the Indianfreedom movement. He wrote, "Ambitions I have none, except to be of some service to theMotherland". The shock of his brother, however, held him to the family. In 1916, Rajendra Prasad joined the High Court of Bihar, and Orissa. Such was his intellect and his integrity, that often whenhis adversary failed to cite a precedent, the judges asked Rajendra Prasad to cite a precedent againsthimself. After meeting Mahatma Gandhi, he quit as a Senator of the University, much to the regretof the British Vice-Chancellor.He also responded to the call by the Mahatma to boycott Westerneducation by asking his son Mrityunjaya Prasad, a brilliant student to drop out of the University andenroll himself in Bihar Vidyapeeth, an institution he had along with his colleagues founded on thetraditional Indian model. He wrote articles for Searchlight and the Desh and collected funds for thesepapers. He toured a lot, explaining, lecturing and exhorting. When the earthquake of Bihar occurredon January 15, 1934, Rajendra Prasad was in jail. He was released two days later. He set himself forthe task of raising funds. The Viceroy had also raised a fund. However, while Rajendra Prasad's fundcollected over 38 Lakhs (Rs. 3,800,000), the Viceroy could only manage one-third of that amount.The way relief was organized left nothing to be desired. Nationalist India expressed its admiration byelecting him to the President of the Bombay session of the Indian National Congress.
 
JAYAPRAKASH NARAYAN
 
Date of Birth : Oct 11, 1902Date of Death : Oct 8, 1979Place of Birth : Uttar PradeshJayaprakash Narayan, widely known as JP, was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader. He wasone of the few leaders of modern India who fought for its independence and took part in activepolitics for a long time after it became independent. He was born in Sitabdiara, village in Balliadistrict of Uttar Pradesh, and did his higher studies including his phd in politics and sociology in theUnited States. He adopted Marxism while studying at the University of Wisconsin in Madison,Wisconsin under Edward Ross; he was also deeply influenced by the writings of M. N. Roy. Afterreturning to India, JP joined the Indian National Congress on the invitation of Jawaharlal Nehru in1929; M. K. Gandhi would be his mentor in the Congress. During the Indian independencemovement, he was arrested, jailed, and tortured several times by the British. He won particular fameduring the Quit India movement. JP married Prabhavati Devi, a freedom fighter in her own right anda staunch disciple of Kasturba Gandhi in October 1920; she stayed in Sabarmati ashram while JP wasabroad and became a devoted Gandhian; she often held opinions which were not in agreement withJP's views, but JP respected her independence. She was the older daughter of Brajkishore Prasad,one of the first Gandhians in Bihar and one who played a major role in Gandhi's campaign inChamparan. After being jailed in 1932 for civil disobedience against British rule, he was imprisonedin Nasik Jail, where he met Ram Manohar Lohia, Minoo Masani, Achyut Patwardhan, Ashok Meta,Yusuf Desai and other national leaders. After his release, the Congress Socialist Party, a left-winggroup within the Congress, was formed with Acharya Narendra Deva as President and JP as Generalsecretary. During the Quit India movement of 1942, when senior Congress leaders were arrested inthe early stages, JP, Lohia and Basawon Singh (Sinha) were at the forefront of the agitations.
 
PURUSHOTTAM DAS TANDON
 
Date of Birth : Aug 1, 1882Date of Death : Jul 1, 1962Place of Birth : Uttar PradeshPurushottam Das Tandon was a freedom fighter from Uttar Pradesh in India, of Punjabi Khatridescent. He is widely remembered for his efforts in achieving the Official Language of India status forHindi. He was revered as Rajarshi. Purushottam Das Tandon was born at Allahabad. After obtaining adegree in law and an MA in history, he started practising in 1906 and joined the bar of AllahabadHigh Court in 1908 as a junior to Tej Bahadur Sapru. He gave up practise in 1921 to concentrate onpublic activities.He was a member of Congress Party since his student days in 1899. In 1906, he representedAllahabad in the AICC. He was associated with the Congress Party committee that studied theJallianwala Bagh incident in 1919. He was also a part of the Servants of the People Society. In the1920s and 1930s he was arrested for participating in the Non-Cooperation movement and SaltSatyagraha respectively. He and Nehru were among the people arrested even before MahatmaGandhi returned from the Round Table Conference at London in 1931. He was known for his effortsin farmers' movements and he served as the President, Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha in 1934. Heworked as the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the present-day Uttar Pradesh for a period of 13 years, from July 31, 1937 to August 10, 1950. He was elected to the Constituent Assembly of Indiain 1946. He was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1952 and the Rajya Sabha in 1956. He retired from activepublic life after that due to indifferent health. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highestcivilian award in 1961.

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