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HTML Tutorial

HTML Tutorial

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Published by danielle leigh
an HTML tutorial for those who want to learn how to build websites
an HTML tutorial for those who want to learn how to build websites

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Published by: danielle leigh on Sep 06, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/11/2010

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This document as been archived from previously offered UTS training course(s)and is NOT updated or supported.
 For information about current course offerings, please visit:
UTS Training
 For current versions of course handouts, please visit:
UTS Training Course Handouts
 
UNIVERSITY OF DENVERBASIC HTMLCOURSE OBJECTIVES:
Following the completion of this course, students will be able to write html code to dothe following:
 
Create paragraphs and line breaks
 
Create headings
 
Work with lists
 
Apply comments
 
Apply formatting to text
 
Create tables
 
Create links to other Web pages and e-mail addresses
 
Insert graphics
 
Create bookmarks within a page
 
Create character entities
UNDERSTANDING HTML
HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is a programming language written in plain-textformat used to create interactive, online Web pages. The HTML is not displayed withinthe browser, but rather provides the browser with instructions on how to display thepage content. It is important to have a basic understanding of HTML in order totroubleshoot problems as they arise within your Web pages.Web standards are not created by either Netscape or Microsoft. W3C or the WorldWide Web Consortium is the organizing body that dictates the standards which areacceptable on the web. The most essential Web standards include: HTML, CSS andXML.HTML is made up of markup tags and attributes that work together to identify variousparts of the document and tell browsers how the document should be displayed.Markup tags are enclosed in angle brackets (<>). Most tags are paired with an opening(<>) and closing (</>) tag. The difference between the two is that the closing tag uses aforward slash (/). HTML tags normally come in pairs such as:
<b>This will boldface the text.</b>
 
The text between the start and end tag is referred to as the element content.HTML coding is not case sensitive. Entering the tag <B> is the same as <b>.However, we suggest you get in the habit of using lowercase characters when writingHTML tags. This is because the next generation of HTML (XHTML) will demand theuse of lowercase tags.
<!DOCTYPE…> TAG:
The <!DOCTYPE…> tag tells browsers what version of HTML is being complied withand is the first line of HTML code that should be entered in a document. The documenttype declaration tag names the Document Type Definition (DTD). HTML 4.01 lists threedifferent document type declarations: strict, transitional and frameset.We recommend that you use the transitional declaration because it is the most flexibleversion. The HTML 4.01 Transitional DTD should be typed as follows:
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN”
 
"http://www.w3.org/TR/html14/loose.dtd">
 
In this example, the DTD element (Document Type Definition) tells browsers that thedocument complies with the HTML version 4.01 Transitional standards. The Webaddress included in the tag allows a browser to verify the correctness of the coding if itchooses to do so. As new standards become available, the tag may change to indicatea new version such as:
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD HTML 5.23 Transitional//EN”
 
"http://www.w3.org/TR/html14/loose.dtd">
 
You do not need to revise the <!DOCTYPE> tag in existing documents as newstandards become available. The <!DOCTYPE> tag will not become invalidated.
STRUCTURE TAGS:
Structure tags provide browsers with information about the document. These tagsprovide information such as the title of the page, what version of HTML is being used,where the body of the document begins, etc. The content of these tags is not displayedin the browser window.HTML documents include four basic structure codes as displayed below:
<html><head><title> A title given to each page uniquely identifying the content of thatpage </title></head><body>The content of your page goes here.</body></html>
 
The <html> tag identifies the start and end of the HTML document.The <head> tag contains information about the Web page, such as the title of the page,style sheets being used, and various other document descriptions. Text within the<head> tag will not be displayed.The <title> tag (within the <head> tag) is important because many search engines usethe title when retrieving relevant articles in a search. The text within the title tags willalso be displayed on the blue title bar of your browser as you view the page.The <body> tag encloses all the information that will be displayed in the browser window. Your entire Web page will be written between the beginning and ending<body> tags.
 
META TAGS:
META tags, also located in the <head> section of your document, are used by manysearch engines to compile their indices. You can improve a search engine's ability tocorrectly index your page by including a brief description for your page in the“Description” and “Keywords" META tag.For example, if your page is about housing for DU freshman students, your META tagsmight look like the following:
<meta name="description" content="Guide to Freshman housing on theUniversity of Denver campus">
 
<meta name="keywords" content="housing, Freshman, campus, University ofDenver">
 
COMMON TAGS AND ATTRIBUTES:
Once the structure of the web page has been created, the content can be entered in thebody section of the page. This content can be manipulated using a variety of HTMLtags. Paragraphs, headings and lists are just a few of the basic tags available tomanipulate the content. Tags within an HTML document will typically also haveattributes associated with them. An attribute provides additional information about anHTML tag – usually instruction on how to format it.
Paragraphs and alignment attributes
The paragraph tag <p> is the most common tag that you will use. The start tag <p>designates where you wish to begin a paragraph and the end tag </p> designates theend of the paragraph.The following example displays the HTML coding for a basic paragraph including thecenter and left attribute which will either center or align that particular paragraph to theleft on the page. Note that the attributes are included within the start tag.
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN"
 
"http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
 
<html>
 
<head>
 
<meta name=“description” content=”Basic HTML guide”>
 
<meta name=”keywords” content=”html, basic, guide”>
 
<title>BasicHTML</title>
 
</head>
 
<body>
 
<p align=center>This is a very basic HTML document. No formatting, graphics orstyles have been applied to the text. The text lines will break depending uponthe size of the browser.</p>
 
<p align=left>This sentence will begin a newparagraph even though I am typing the html coding on the same line as theprevious paragraph. It will be aligned to the left.</p>
 
</body>
 
</body>
 
</html>
 
Below is how the document would look if you were to preview the page in InternetExplorer:

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