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chemistry - physical properties of organic chemistry

chemistry - physical properties of organic chemistry

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Published by: helixate on Sep 06, 2008
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02/01/2013

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Physical Properties of Organic Compounds
PROPERTIES
Alkanes
Alkenes
Arenes
Halogen Derivatives
TYPES
Aliphatic
Aromatic
Aliphatic
Aromatic
Benzene
Arenes
Haloalkanes
Haloarenes
EXAMPLE
C
H3
CH3
C
H2
CH2
CH3
CH3Cl
Cl
NOMENCLATURE
CnH2n+2
~e
CnH2n
Cyclo~e
CnH2n
Presence ofcis
andtrans isomer
CnH2n\u20132
C6H6
Phenyl~
Variable
CnH2n+1X
C6H5X
BOILING POINT
\u2191es with \u2191gC
\u2191 in Mr = More e\u2013
= more id-id
*Branching\u2193 bp

Branched isomer
has lower surface
area than
straight-chain
isomer = lower
id-id interactions.

Higher bp
than corr.
aliphatic
alkanes
\u2191es with \u2191gC

Similar bp as
alkane with same
number of C
*bp may be
slightly higher for

cis isomers as

the dipole
moment do not
cancel out = pd-

pd interactions\ue000
Higher bp
Higher bp
than corr.
aliphatic
alkenes
80\u00b0C

Higher bp than
6C alkane (69\u00b0C)
and 6C alkene
(63.5\u00b0C).

Comparable bp
with cyclohexane
(81\u00b0) and
cyclohexene
(83\u00b0C).

Dependent on e\u2013
cloud size
(molecular weight)

Higher bp than
corr. alkanes due
to larger Mr.
(for some also
due to presence
of pd-pd)

Bp\u2191es
-with size of X.
Effect of id-id
forces outweigh\u2193

polarity of bond
i.e weaker pd-pd
-with more subsn

of X

Comparable bp
to corr. alkyl
halides i.e higher
bp than corr.
alkanes

MELTING POINT
\u2191es with \u2191gC

M.P affected by
how close the
molecules can
pack together

Branchg may\u2191
mp

Though less
efficient id-id
forces, isomer
able to pack into
regular arrays

Higher mp
than corr.
aliphatic
alkanes
\u2191es with \u2191gC
Trans\u2013isomers

pack better into a regular lattice i.e. higher bp than

cis-isomers.
Higher mp
than corr.
aliphatic
alkenes
5.5\u00b0C

Higher mp than
6C alkane (\u2013
95\u00b0C) and 6C
alkene (\u2013138\u00b0C).
Comparable mp
with cyclohexane
(6.5\u00b0).
Has higher mp
than cyclohexene
(\u2013104\u00b0C)

Dependent on
molecular weight
and shape.

For isomers, 1,4-
usually has the highest
mp compared to 1,2-
and 1,3-. More
symmetrical molecular
fits better into crystal
lattice.

Higher mp
than corr.
alkanes due
to larger Mr.

Comparable mp
to corr. akyl
halides i.e higher
bp than corr.
alkanes

SOLUBILITY
(POLAR SOLVENTS)
Insoluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
(unable to form H bondg with water)
SOLUBILITY
(NON POLAR SOLVENTS)
Soluble(CCl4)
Soluble
Soluble
(acts as solvent)
Soluble
nh05
http://education.helixated.com
An Open Source Education
Project
Physical Properties of Organic Compounds
DENSITY
(WRT WATER)
Less Dense
Less Dense
(Denser than
aliphatic alkanes)
Less Dense
Less Dense
(Denser than
aliphatic alkenes)
Less Dense
Less Dense
Denser
nh05
http://education.helixated.com
An Open Source Education
Project

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