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physics - definitions 2

# physics - definitions 2

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02/01/2013

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Units, Quantities & Measurements
Base Units: mass, distance, time, current, amount,
temperature and light intensity.
Derived Units: base units derived by multiplication or
division.
Prefixes: tera, giga, mega, kilo, deci, centi, milli, micro,
nano, and pico.
Homogenous: units on one side must be the same as on the
other.

Vectors, Scalars & Linear Motion
Vectors and Scalars: types of measurement you can make.
Scalar Measurement: records the magnitude (or amount) of

whatever you are measuring.
Vector Measurement: records the magnitude of the thing
you are measuring and the direction.
Resultant Vector: single vector that has the same effect as
all the others put together.
Speed: rate of change of distance or the distance moved in

unit time.
Velocity: rate of change of displacement.
Acceleration: how rapdily something is changing speed.
Displacement: distance moved in a specified direction.
Displacement-time Graph: shwos the motion of an object

and allows you to find position and velocity at any time.
Velocity-time Graphs: follow the same idea as
displacement-time grpahs, velocity is on the y-axis.
Equations of Motion
v: final velocity.

u: initial velocity.
a: constant acceleration.
Projectiles: vectors at right angle to each other are

independent; have no effect on each other.
Circular Motion
Newton's First Law: if an object continues in straight line at
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consatnt velocity, all forces acting on the object are

balanced.
Circular Motion: resultant force. Called the centripetal force.
Centripetal Force: always directed towards the centre of the

circle (along the radius of the circle).

Centripetal Acceleration: caused by the centripetal force.
Always at 90oM to the direction of the movement of the
object.

Angles: measured in degrees. 360o = 1 rotation.
by the equation: circumference = 2pr
Angular Speed: measures the angle of a complete circle
(measured in radians) covered per second.
Forces

Force: rate of change of the linear momentum of a body.
Balanced Forces: cause no acceleration.
Unblanaced Forces: cause acceleration in the direction of

the resultant force.
Calculating Force: F = ma.
F: force (N)
m: mass (kg)
a: acceleration (m/s2).
Newton's First Law of Motion: bodies will continue to move

with a uniform velocity unless acted on by a resultant force.
Newton's Second Law of Motion:resultant force is equal to
the rate of change or momentum.
Newton's Third Law of Motion: every force has an equal and
opposite force.
Friction: caused by rubbing, Can be the surfaces between
two solids rubbing, a solid surface and a liquid or a gas.

"Friction Dissipates Energy": means that energy moves,
usually changing from kinetic energy to heat energy, where
it is lost ot the surroundings.

Terminal Velocity: when air resistance force up has grown so
big that it matches the weight down, there is no resultant
force and therefore no acceleration.

Pressure: caused by forces acting on a surface.
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Momentum and Impulse
Linear Momentum: p, defined as the mass, m, of an object
multiplied by its velocity, v. p = mv.

Conservation of a Momentum Principle: states that the total momentum of a system remains constant provided that no external force acts on the system.

Conservation of an Energy Principle: states that energy
cannot be created or destroyed only transformed from one
form to another.

Collision Tyes: perfectly elastic, perfectly inelastic and
inelastic.
Impulse: the product of the force and the perpendicular
distance
Moments, Couples and Equilibrium
Moment: a force multiplied by the perpendicular distance
from th eline of action of the force to the pivot.

Couples: two forces acting on a subject and the forces are parallel, in opposite directions, of equal size and not along the same line of action.

Triangle of Forces: finds out if the forces acting on an object
are in equlibrium.
Centre of Gravity: point where all the mass seems to be
concentrated.

Work, Energy and Efficiency
Energy: 'the capacity of a body to do work'
Work: what something does whenever it transfers energy

from one form to another.
Work Equation: work = force x distance moved in the
firection of the force, or W = Fs.

Kinetic Energy:1/2 mv2. Stored energy. Kinetic energy stored
in an object that is moving = amount of work done
accelerating it to that speed.

Potential Energy: Ep = P.E = mgh. Energy stored in objects,
which have been lifted against a gravitational field.
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