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physics - definitions 2Ratings:

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(3)|Views: 1,263|Likes: 17Published by helixate

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/5556979/physics-definitions-2

02/01/2013

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Units, Quantities & Measurements

Base Units: mass, distance, time, current, amount,

temperature and light intensity.

Derived Units: base units derived by multiplication or

division.

Prefixes: tera, giga, mega, kilo, deci, centi, milli, micro,

nano, and pico.

Homogenous: units on one side must be the same as on the

other.

Vectors, Scalars & Linear Motion

Vectors and Scalars: types of measurement you can make.

Scalar Measurement: records the magnitude (or amount) of

whatever you are measuring.

Vector Measurement: records the magnitude of the thing

you are measuring and the direction.

Resultant Vector: single vector that has the same effect as

all the others put together.

Speed: rate of change of distance or the distance moved in

unit time.

Velocity: rate of change of displacement.

Acceleration: how rapdily something is changing speed.

Displacement: distance moved in a specified direction.

Displacement-time Graph: shwos the motion of an object

and allows you to find position and velocity at any time.

Velocity-time Graphs: follow the same idea as

displacement-time grpahs, velocity is on the y-axis.

Equations of Motion

v: final velocity.

u: initial velocity.

a: constant acceleration.

Projectiles: vectors at right angle to each other are

independent; have no effect on each other.

Circular Motion

Newton's First Law: if an object continues in straight line at

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consatnt velocity, all forces acting on the object are

balanced.

Circular Motion: resultant force. Called the centripetal force.

Centripetal Force: always directed towards the centre of the

circle (along the radius of the circle).

Centripetal Acceleration: caused by the centripetal force.

Always at 90oM to the direction of the movement of the

object.

Angles: measured in degrees. 360o = 1 rotation.

Radians: radius of a circle and its circumference are related

by the equation: circumference = 2pr

Angular Speed: measures the angle of a complete circle

(measured in radians) covered per second.

Forces

Force: rate of change of the linear momentum of a body.

Balanced Forces: cause no acceleration.

Unblanaced Forces: cause acceleration in the direction of

the resultant force.

Calculating Force: F = ma.

F: force (N)

m: mass (kg)

a: acceleration (m/s2).

Newton's First Law of Motion: bodies will continue to move

with a uniform velocity unless acted on by a resultant force.

Newton's Second Law of Motion:resultant force is equal to

the rate of change or momentum.

Newton's Third Law of Motion: every force has an equal and

opposite force.

Friction: caused by rubbing, Can be the surfaces between

two solids rubbing, a solid surface and a liquid or a gas.

"Friction Dissipates Energy": means that energy moves,

usually changing from kinetic energy to heat energy, where

it is lost ot the surroundings.

Terminal Velocity: when air resistance force up has grown so

big that it matches the weight down, there is no resultant

force and therefore no acceleration.

Pressure: caused by forces acting on a surface.

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Momentum and Impulse

Linear Momentum: p, defined as the mass, m, of an object

multiplied by its velocity, v. p = mv.

Conservation of a Momentum Principle: states that the total momentum of a system remains constant provided that no external force acts on the system.

Conservation of an Energy Principle: states that energy

cannot be created or destroyed only transformed from one

form to another.

Collision Tyes: perfectly elastic, perfectly inelastic and

inelastic.

Impulse: the product of the force and the perpendicular

distance

Moments, Couples and Equilibrium

Moment: a force multiplied by the perpendicular distance

from th eline of action of the force to the pivot.

Couples: two forces acting on a subject and the forces are parallel, in opposite directions, of equal size and not along the same line of action.

Triangle of Forces: finds out if the forces acting on an object

are in equlibrium.

Centre of Gravity: point where all the mass seems to be

concentrated.

Work, Energy and Efficiency

Energy: 'the capacity of a body to do work'

Work: what something does whenever it transfers energy

from one form to another.

Work Equation: work = force x distance moved in the

firection of the force, or W = Fs.

Kinetic Energy:1/2 mv2. Stored energy. Kinetic energy stored

in an object that is moving = amount of work done

accelerating it to that speed.

Potential Energy: Ep = P.E = mgh. Energy stored in objects,

which have been lifted against a gravitational field.

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