But is it not redundant to speak of true knowledge? Is there sucha thing as false knowledge, for example?Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher (1770-1831). He taught that therational is the real, and the real is the rational. Opposites are essential elements of change,as Heraclitus had believed. The pattern of change takes the form of triads: thesis,antithesis and synthesis. His best-known works are:
The Phenomenology of Mind
Science of Logic
Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The Philosophy of Right
(1820). His students' notes functioned as the basis for his lectures on the philosophyof history and the philosophy of religion which were published posthumously.Karl Marx (1818-83). Marx began his intellectual life as a left Hegelian. In 1844, he became a political activist, a known radical figure and a friend of Friedrich Engels. Hisfriendship with Engels led to their joint work,
The Manifesto of the Communist Party
(1848). The first volume of his other important work,
was published in 1859.
AI-madda aw al-lah
(matter or God). In this chapter, the author tries to determinewhether it is matter or God that is the primary cause of the world.
Introduction: The Social Issue
The world problem that preoccupies human thought today and touches its core reality isthat of the social system. This problem can be summed up in the endeavour to give themost truthful answer to the following question: 'Which system is good for human beingsand provides them with a happy social life?' Naturally, this problem occupies an important position, and is, with its complexity andvariety of kinds of efforts for solving it, a source of danger for humankind itself. This isso because the system is an aspect of the consideration of human life and affects theinnermost structure of its existence.This problem is deeply rooted in the distant times of human history. Mankind hasconfronted is ever since it arose in actual social life. [Primitive] communal human[living] began exemplified in a number of individuals joined together, united by commonrelations and bonds. But these relations, which were formed to satisfy the requirements of instinct and nature, were, as a matter of fact, in need of guidance and organization. It ison the basis of the extent of harmony between such organization and human reality andwelfare chat the stability and happiness of society depend.This problem has driven humanity to plunge into a long struggle in the ideological and political fields, and into different kinds of conflicts, and of various intellectual doctrines(p. 12) that seek to establish and construct the social edifice, as well as to formulate itsdesigns and to posit its principles. This is a delicate struggle full of tragedies andinjustice, and overflowing with laughter and tears. Happiness and misery were linkedtogether in it. All of this was due to the expressions of deviation and estrangement fromthe proper social condition that were represented in [various] social forms. Were is not