uses in food preparation especially in cheese, yoghurt, in beer and wine making. Eg.
Organisms with an optimum T between about 45 degrees and 70 degrees are thermophiles. Eg.
Thermococcus litoralis, Pyrococcus furiosus
.Some Archaea with an optimum T of 80 degrees or higher and a maximum T as high as 115 degrees, arenow referred to as extreme
thermophiles or hyperthermophiles. Eg.
.The cold-loving organisms are psychrophil a growth temperature optimum of 15
C or lower and cannotgrow in a climate beyond a maximum temperature of 20
Chlamydomonas, Moritella,Mathanococcoides burtonii, Polaromonas vacuolata.
Psychrotrophs are the source of food storage inrefrigerators since they are invariably brought in from their mesophilic habitats and continue to grow in therefrigerated environment where they spoil the food. Of course, they grow slower at 2 degrees than at 25degrees.
Microorganisms which grow at an optimum pH well below neutrality (7.0) are called
. Thosewhich grow best at neutral pH are called
and those that grow best under alkaline conditionsare called
. Obligate acidophiles, such as some
species, actually require a low pHfor growth since their membranes dissolve and the cells lyse at neutrality. Several genera of Archaea,including
, are obligate acidophiles. Among eukaryotes, many fungi areacidophiles, but the champion of growth at low pH is the eucaryotic alga
which can grow at a pH of 0.Most bacteria grow best in a narrow pH range near neutrality, between pH 6.5 and 7.5. Molds andyeast will grow over a greater pH range than bacteria will, but the optimum pH of molds and yeasts is