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(7) Morphology of Permanent Molars

(7) Morphology of Permanent Molars

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Published by Ali Hassan Al-Qudsi

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Published by: Ali Hassan Al-Qudsi on May 17, 2011
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03/21/2014

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Lecture # 7
MorphologyOf Permanent Molars
,In this lecture we will talk about permanent 1
st
molar  but at first we will talk about molars in general.
slide #2
:
-Class traits1(
molars have 3 or more cusps but sometimes there is a possibility to have a premolar with 3 cusps , so how can wedistinguish between the two?- by counting the # of cusps buccally; premolars haveonly one cusp buccally , but molars have at least two.
2(
lingually, molars have one or two cusps , but the mostcommon to have two.
3(
molars in general have 2 or 3 roots.
Slide #3:
-
Arch traits
( to distinguish between upper & lower molars:(
1(
Roots:Upper molars have 3 roots; 2B and 1L but lower molars have 2roots; 1M & 1D.
2(
Crown:In upper molars the crown is wider BL than MD (BL =11.0mm , MD=10.0mm(Lower molars the MD>BL (BL=10.0mm , MD=11.0mm.(
3(
Cusps:In upper molars there're 4 unequal cusps but lower molars have4 equal sized cusps. 
1|Page
 
-When we look to the occlusal surface of upper molar we find:*Three major cusps belong to 1 unit (ML, MB &DB) which arearranged in a tricuspid-triangular pattern (Trigon.(*DL cusp which doesn't belong to the Trigon & this cusp issmall in size and sometimes missing especially in 3
rd
molar .
4(
In upper molars there's an oblique ridge which comes fromML to DB cusps , but in lower molars there's no oblique ridge.
5)
In upper molars the cusps are unequal in size (MB>DB)(ML > DL)-Remember in lower molars cusps are equal insize.
Slide #5:
 
-
Type trait
( to distinguish between1
st
,
2
nd
& 3rd molars):
1)
When we go posteriorly the DL cuspreduces in size and may be missing in3
rd
molar "as we mentioned previously"
2)
1
st
molar is the largest & shows theleast morphological variation .
2|Page
U should know that the 4 equal sized cusps in lowermolar belon to 1 unitGreat Apes like Gorilla and Chimpanzee have theoblique ridges but monkeys don't have it , they'vetransverse ridges & their lower molars look like uppermolars.
 
st
 
nd
 
rd
 
 
 
3)
Cusp of carabelli which present on the ML cusp of the 1
st
molar .
 -
Sometimes we've a cusp of carabelli in the max. 2
nd
molar in a very very low % , but of course we don't have inthe 3
rd
molar .
4)
Roots :As we go posteriorly the roots become distally inclined &much closer to each other and there's possibility to fuse in 3
rd
molar .5) Line angles ( this point isn't mentioned in the slides )As we go posteriorly the acute angles become more acute &the obtuse angles become more obtuse & the tooth becomemore rhomboidal .
Slide # 6:
 Now we will talk about max. permanent 1
st
molar 
Buccal aspect :
- MB & DB cusps are equal in height but the MB cuspis wider mesio-distally & the 2 cusps are separated byB groove that terminates halfway.- Slopes of DB are steeper than MB- The apex of DB cusp is sharper than MB- tip of ML cusp can be seen between the 2 B cusps bcz
3|Page
 
Remember that 80% of molars have cusp of carabelli that means U may find a 1st molarwithout this cusp, sooooo if U get a molarwithout cusp of carabelli that doesn't mean thismolar isn't the 1
st
molar .

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