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The Effect of the Bluestar Blood Reagent on DNA Typing

The Effect of the Bluestar Blood Reagent on DNA Typing

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Nesstor Pilco Ferreto on May 18, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/18/2011

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FRENCH DEFENSE DEPARTMENTGENDARMERIE NATIONALECRIMINAL RESEARCH INSTITUTEBIOLOGY DEPARTMENT
 
The effect of theBlueStar™ blood reagenton DNA typing.
 © 
BLUESTAR 2001 by Aspirant BRENIAUX
 
- 2 -
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………….…… 3MATERIALS AND METHODS……………………………………………………..…… 5
1- CREATION OF THE BLOODSTAINS……………………………..………………….…..…… 52- TREATMENT OF THE BLOODSTAINS WITH NaOH AND BLUESTAR™…..….………… 53- ORGANIC EXTRACTION OF THE DNA…………………………..…………………….…… 54- QUANTIFICATION OF THE DNA………………………………….……………………….… 75- STR TYPING OF THE DNA…………………………..…………………………..……….…… 7
RESULTS…………………………..……..……………………………………………..… 8
1- DETERMINATION OF THE pH OF THE SOLUTION…..………..……………………...…… 82- DNA TYPING AFTER TREATMENT OF THE BLOODSTAINS WITHBLUESTAR™……………………………………………………….....………..……………..…… 9
CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES.……………………………………………...… 11BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………..… 12ANNEXES…………………………………………………………………………………. 13
 
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INTRODUCTION
On a presumed crime scene, searching for bloodstains is of critical importance. Themorphological, biochemical, and genetic analysis of these stains is fundamental during aninvestigation.Consequently, the Thanatology - Anthropology - Odontology (TAO) department of theCriminal Research Institute of the French Gendarmerie Nationale (IRCGN) studies themorphology of such bloodstains. Similarly, specialists from the fingerprints department(EDG) detect the fingerprints contained in these bloodstains. Finally, experts from the biologydepartment (BIO) are tasked with analyzing all the biological evidence, including blood, inorder to identify its origin through DNA typing, and later to compare it to reference samples,including those of the defendant or defendants, and of the victim.When bloodstains are still fresh and large a visual examination may be sufficient todetect them. In practical cases however these stains may be invisible to the naked eye (having been washed or wiped) and it is then necessary to use intensifying chemicals to evidencethem.Two main categories of such chemicals exist for this purpose:- those who react to the proteins and amino acids contained in the biologicalfluid (DFO, Amido Black, etc.)- those who evidence an enzymatic activity (peroxydase activity type):Benzidine, Leucomalachite green (LMG), Leucocrystal violet (LCV), Luminol, BlueStar™,Fluorescein (1)Some of these chemicals are not currently used anymore due to practical reasons (difficult andtime-consuming preparation) or for security reasons (toxicity).Two studies have been conducted by the IRCGN on the Leucomalachite green (LMG),and the Leucocrystal violet (LCV) chemicals used by the EDG department to evidence bloodyfingerprints. The authors have shown that using these chemicals does not allow for DNAtyping when blood is found in small quantity (2, 3).The biology department is therefore interested in the BlueStar™, a new luminol-basedchemical, used by the TAO department.

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