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Iraqi Insurgency and the Surge Strategy

Iraqi Insurgency and the Surge Strategy

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Published by: owaisadil on May 18, 2011
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IRAQI INSURGENCY AND THE SURGE STRATEGY
³The first, the supreme, the most far-reaching act of judgment that thestatesman and commander have to make is to establish«the kind of war,on which they are embarking; neither mistaking it for, not trying to turn it into, something that is alien to its nature. This is the first of all strategic questions and the most comprehensive´.Clausewitz 
 
Introduction
1. The US aggression in Iraq and ensuing destabilization resulted into one of themost vicious insurgent movements of the region, which affected the region in generaland Iraq in particular on multiple planes. Despite the ostentatious claims of the US of converting Iraq into a democratic state, the country witnessed unabated violence for almost five years. With mounting US and Iraqi causalities, the US administration wasforced to undertake a
Policy Review.
 An independent study by the Iraq Study Group(ISG), identified areas that needed to be addressed in order to bring stability anddesired social changes in the system. Concurrently, a new Counter Insurgency(COIN) doctrine was formulated by US Army General David Petraeus and MarineCorps General James Mattis to meet the operational and tactical requirements of theUS forces in Iraq. The new doctrine expounded on the hitherto fore unexploredterritory of the COIN. The implementation of new strategy in concert with therecommendations forwarded by ISG brought quantifiable changes in the overallsecurity situation in Iraq. The situation in Iraq, although different from the obtainingenvironment in Pakistan, offers some similarities; particularly in terms of involvementof foreign players and existence of sub-nationalist parties with dissident manifestos.
 
2
. The way forward for Pakistan may be found in a dispassionate analysis of the
 Surge Strategy 
in order to ascertain its efficacy in dealing with obtainingenvironment.
 Aim
3
. To undertake an in-depth analysis of the Iraqi Insurgency and the USresponse with a view to draw pertinent inferences for countering the currentinsurgent and terrorists trends in Pakistan.
Scope
4. The paper shall discuss the Surge Doctrine and its efficacy for Pakistan onthe following lines:-
 
a.
Part I
. Iraq ± A country in turmoil.
 
b.
Part II
. Implementation of the new doctrine.
 
c.
Part III
. Pakistan - Anatomy of the problem and new course of action.
 
d.
Part IV
. Dissection of the doctrine.
 
e.
Part V
. The way forward.
 
 
PART ± IIRAQ ± A COUNTRY IN TURMOIL
5
.
The Road to War; Genesis of the Iraqi Insurgency
. The Iraqi invasion of March
2003
by US lead Coalition was carried out on the pretext of Iraq¶s continuousrefusal to follow United Nation Security Council Resolution 1441 of 
2002
1
. Despitethe repeated assurances by the Iraqi government, coalition forces unfolded their offensive against Iraq on
20
March
2003
. The overwhelming firepower and mobilityof the coalition forces caused a complete meltdown of the Iraqi system of forces.However, the brief window of opportunity available, immediately after the fall of Saddam was lost as the coalition forces failed to take correct stock of the situationand adopt a proactive approach towards addressing the immediate requirements of the population. The major factors leading up to the eruption of insurgency arediscussed in succeeding paragraphs.a.
Legitimacy of the Invasion
. The raison etre as given by the Bushadministration for waging war was the possession of WMD, continuedoppression of Iraqi people and harbouring of various terroristorganizations including Al Qaed(AQ). President Bush announced hisdetermination to invade Iraq if necessary to prevent Saddam Husseinfrom gaining WMDs, which he could use to attack, or, to provide to theterrorists
2
. Ultimately, notwithstanding the stern opposition from variousquarters, the US led coalition did invade Iraq. According to UNSG, Mr Kofi Anan ³the US led invasion of Iraq was illegal act that contravened
1
http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDCO/GEN/NO
2
/68
2
/
2
6/PDF/NO
2
68
22
6.pdf?openElement ³requirement of disarming Iraq with regards to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD
2
Bruce R. Pirnie, Edward O¶Connell, Counterinsurgency in Iraq (
2003
 ±
200
6), RANDMonograph, , The RAND Corporation
200
8, page #
5
 

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