are the outcome of our deeds in the life before the present life. We take birth after birth tocomplete our course on this earth, and what we sow in the one; we must reap in the next. Noone would question the logic of the view that human society works on the Laws of Actions.That actions must bear their fruit is the basic principle of every other religion, except PaulineChristianity. Differences in social position, in many cases, undoubtedly arise from our ownactions. We are the creators of our own comfort and misery.According to this philosophy, inferiority of a person to a second person in the social scale isdue some of his sins in his bygone life. However, differences in occupation and employmentare the motive power of social machinery. We must serve each other in a wide variety of differing capacities, if adequate contribution is to be made to the common comfort. If,however, difference of this kind is attributed to some past sin, then comfort and progressmust demand the existence of evil. Men of one generation must necessarily commit sin sothat, in the next, they may be reborn in the lower for the purpose of contributing to thehappiness of the upper social stratum. What kind of philosophy is that considers sin andmisdeeds essential to maintain and sustain the cycle of life. It is absurd on the very face of it.The process of procreation demands difference of sex. You may ascribe your presentdifference from another man to some cause in your previous life, but where were the actionswhich caused difference of sex in the first pair, whence our species has its being?
HAPPINESS A BENEFICENCE AND NOT A FRUIT OF ACTION
If all our present means of happiness are given to us as a reward for past actions, how are weto explain the happiness which comes to us providentially? Much of our happiness is derivedfrom the varied manifestations of Nature, like the Sun, the Moon, the Earth and all that itprovides; and the proportion of happiness that we acquire through our actions depends too,upon the working out, by us, of sources of Nature which were in existence long before mancame on the Earth. How can all this be the reward of our past actions? We cannot livewithout the pre-existence of millions of things in the universe; they all add to our happiness.They all come as beneficence of God, and not in reward of actions. Divine Providence, asexhibited in Nature, makes Divine Blessing, which is the main store of our happiness, a pre-existing thing; while the theory of Karma makes our actions to pre-exist the Divine Blessing,which is absurd on the face of it.If all our happiness has to arise from our actions, our happiness would be next to nothing.What comes out of our actions in the shape of happiness sinks into insignificance whencompared with what we get as Divine Blessings. If we get everything due to the actions of our past life, then we need not be grateful to God anymore. As you can see, this is a blot onthe Beneficence of God.
THE THEORY WEAKENS THE SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY
If our actions receive their birth and mould from our beliefs, we should not entertain anytenet or doctrine which tends to ruin our sense of responsibility, and to create in us oral ormental imbecility. Fatalism, in the received sense of the word, was condemned by Islam forthis very reason. Vicarious Atonement in Christianity is another condemnable belief. If another has to bear the burden my burden, incentive for action, on my part, is lost. Similarly,we strive hard to alleviate our misery, because we believe that it is possible to alleviate it; butwhen we find that our trouble is absolutely without remedy, our zeal is gone, for what is theuse of trying in such a case? Our misery, under the theory of Karma has come to us as the