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UN Panel of Experts NORK Report May 2011

UN Panel of Experts NORK Report May 2011

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11-32818 (E) 120511
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Report of the Panel of Experts established pursuant toresolution 1874 (2009)
Summary
Over the period under review the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea hascontinued to reject and to violate Security Council resolutions. In November 2010the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea revealed that it had been pursuing aprogramme of uranium enrichment and was constructing a new nuclear reactor. Thecountry has also continued to defy the bans on imports and exports of nuclear-relateditems, of conventional arms and of luxury goods, and this report details severalseizures of banned shipments.The Panel believes that, while sanctions have clearly not stopped theDemocratic People’s Republic of Korea’s nuclear programmes and trade in arms,they have made it more difficult and expensive for the country to pursue these.Nevertheless Member States continue to face numerous difficulties in implementingsanctions. The Panel has discovered loopholes and other vulnerabilities in shippingand transportation practices that the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea andothers have exploited, and notes increasing sophistication on the part of theDemocratic People’s Republic of Korea both in the establishment of shell and frontcompanies and offshore financial agents, and in the proliferation of affiliates,substitutes and aliases intended to mask already designated entities and individuals.This report therefore includes a variety of recommendations to improve theeffectiveness of sanctions. These include suggested responses to the DemocraticPeople’s Republic of Korea’s uranium enrichment programme, further efforts toencourage Member States to report as required by the Council, extending the list of items prohibited by the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1718 (2006),clearer guidelines on the definition of luxury goods and an expansion and updatingof the list of eight entities and five individuals currently sanctioned by theCommittee.
 
 
11-32818
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In pursuing its mandate the Panel has consulted extensively with MemberStates, inspected seized goods and interviewed numerous experts at internationalconferences and in New York. It has increased its knowledge of techniques of sanctions evasion used by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (which includeextensive falsification of documents and diversion of cargo), illicit financialtransactions carried out by the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the channelsthrough which banned goods travel, and cooperation of the Democratic People’sRepublic of Korea with other States in pursuing proscribed activities. The Panel isgrateful for the cooperation it has received from many Member States.Much remains to be done to improve sanctions implementation among MemberStates and to constrain the networks that facilitate sanctions evasion. Lookingforward, the Panel plans to work with Member States to improve the rate of filing of national implementation and compliance-related reports, to work towardsestablishing best practice for vigilance on cargo to and from the Democratic People’sRepublic of Korea, to suggest other entities and individuals for designation, and torecommend ways of countering the efforts of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to evade sanctions.
 
 
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11-32818
Contents
Page
Abbreviations
..................................................................
5I. Introduction
...................................................................
6II. Methodology
..................................................................
7III. Background
...................................................................
7IV. Panel of Experts
................................................................
9V. Reports of Member States
........................................................
12A.
 
National implementation reports
..............................................
13B.
 
Compliance-related reports (inspection, seizure and disposal)
......................
15VI. Nuclear, other weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missile programmes of theDemocratic People’s Republic of Korea
............................................
16A.
 
Nuclear programmes
........................................................
16B.
 
Ballistic missile programmes
.................................................
24C.
 
Other existing weapons of mass destruction programmes
..........................
26VII. Export and import-related measures
...............................................
27A.
 
Nuclear, other weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missile-related exports andimports
...................................................................
27B.
 
Arms exports and imports
...................................................
30C.
 
Ban on luxury goods
........................................................
32VIII. Interdiction
....................................................................
34A.
 
Trade and transportation infrastructure
.........................................
34B.
 
Patterns of sanctions evasion
.................................................
38C.
 
Interdiction actions
.........................................................
41IX. Financial measures
.............................................................
43A.
 
Illicit financial transactions
..................................................
44B.
 
Foreign investment in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
..................
46X. Designation of goods, entities and individuals
.......................................
48A.
 
Designation of entities and individuals
.........................................
48B.
 
Designation of goods
.......................................................
52XI. Unintended impact
.............................................................
53A.
 
Unintended impact on the humanitarian situation
................................
53B.
 
Unintended impact on diplomatic missions
.....................................
54XII. Recommendations
..............................................................
54

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