Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
6Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Sustainable Energy in Asia -2025 by Low Rank Coal Up-gradation in Indonesia

Sustainable Energy in Asia -2025 by Low Rank Coal Up-gradation in Indonesia

Ratings: (0)|Views: 249|Likes:
Published by Sanjay Singh
Sustainable Energy in Asia -2025 by Low Rank Coal up-gradation in Indonesia -Sanjay Singh INTRODUCTION: Energy is a basic requirement for development of any country as well as people’s quality of life. There are enough resources available around the world to meet the energy demand but the main challenge is to how to get these resources techno economically feasible to manage the energy demand with environment challenges. For developing country, it is beneficial that developed country transfer tec
Sustainable Energy in Asia -2025 by Low Rank Coal up-gradation in Indonesia -Sanjay Singh INTRODUCTION: Energy is a basic requirement for development of any country as well as people’s quality of life. There are enough resources available around the world to meet the energy demand but the main challenge is to how to get these resources techno economically feasible to manage the energy demand with environment challenges. For developing country, it is beneficial that developed country transfer tec

More info:

Published by: Sanjay Singh on May 19, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/01/2012

 
Sustainable Energy in Asia -2025 by Low Rank Coal up-gradation in Indonesia-Sanjay SinghINTRODUCTION:
Energy is a basic requirement for development of any country as well as
people’s
quality of life. There are enough resources available around the worldto meet the energy demand but the main challenge is to how to get theseresources techno economically feasible to manage the energy demand withenvironment challenges.For developing country, it is beneficial that developed country transfertechnology and expertise freely without any barrier to reach the balance gapfor R & D efforts as required for techno-economic utilisation of resources.Indonesia have 61.3billion ton of Coal resources with 19.3 billion ton as Coalreserve and can play a vital role in the energy mix design module for keyenergy consuming market of China, India, Japan & Korea.Around 70% 0f Indonesian Coal are claimed as Low Rank Coal because of Highmoisture content ( 35-50%) and GCV less than 5000 Kcal/kg but having less Ash% and few slots are defined as High sulphur blocks having TS 3-4% but overallaverage TS < 0.5 % . For commercial purpose, GOI treat Lignite to Subbituminous C rank Coal having Moisture > 35% with low Calorific Value ( <5100Kcal/kg ADB) as Low Rank Coal.The Rank wise coal distribution in Indonesia area as:
 
Sub Bituminous,27%Lignite,58%Bituminous,14.5%Anthracite , 0.5%
 
LOW RANK COAL-
The principal feature in Conversion of Vegetable debris to Peat-Lignite-SubBituminous Coal- Bituminous Coal- Anthracite Coal i.e Coal Ranking up-gradation is also rapid de-watering because of natural chemicaldecomposition, and increase in pressure, temperature as a result tectonicactivity and overburden volume within compacted mass of matters.Inherent moisture is inside the Coaly matter and mineral matter that isincluded in the Coal, In addition of above inherent moisture, Coal is known toabsorb water when exposed in humid atmosphere during mining, stacking,transportation in open wagon or washing.In low rank Coal fuel like Sub bituminous and Lignite, the separation of Surfaceand Inherent moisture is difficult to do because of high porosity characteristicsand sponge like nature of these materials as compare to Bituminous andAnthracite Coal.There are number of negative aspect associated with the use of high moistureCoal as termed Low rank..
 
Low thermal efficiency ( More Coal being used for per unit energygeneration)
 
Low stripping ratio work to maintain Mining Cost (Poor recovery of Coalresources as not feasible to do mining on high SR with respect to Saleprice of Low rank Coal)
 
High transportation cost per unit energy content.
 
High tendency for spontaneous Combustion
 
High emission of Co2 & noxious gases per unit of energy generated.Major factor for Low thermal efficiency of Coal is High moisture and its impacton Heating Value is conceptualised with following basics to know impact onheating values.
MOISTURE % VS HEATING VALUE:
Coal is a composition of Total Moisture, Fixed Carbon, Volatile matter and Ashcontent that can be analysed by Proximate Analysis of Coal as:
 
 
TM- 19.3%, IM-11.5%,Ash- 2 % ARB, Volatile Matter- VM- 40.1% ARB,Fixed Carbon (FC) - 38.6% ARB, GVV (Kcal/Kg) - 5766 ARB, 6419 ADB
 
The heating Value of Coal is mainly generated because of Fixed Carbonand Volatile Matter parameters only in the Coal and other parameter as
like Moisture, Ash don’t contribute any heating Value in the Coal.
Volatile Matter of all Coal is different based on composition of H2, N2,O2 and other gases.
 
 
Heating Value from Fixed Carbon + Heating Value from VM = HeatingValue of Coal
 
Latent heat of Carbon
 – 
32.8MJ/Kg (7.84 Kcal/gm)
 
Heat Value generated because of Fixed Carbon in 1 Kg Coal-386*7.84 =3026.2 Kcal/Kg of Coal
 
Heating Value of VM in 1 kg Coal sample = 5766-3026.2 = 2739.8 Kcal
 
401 * Lvm = 2739.8 Kcal
 
Heat Value from VM for particular Coal sample
 – 
6.83 Kcal/gm
 
Impact of 1% moisture reduction on Heating Value:
 
TM+ FC + VM+ ASH = COAL
 
19.3gm + 38.6gm + 40.1gm + 2gm = 100gm Coal
 
18.3gm +
38.6gm + 40.1gm + 2gm =
99gm Coal (1 % M Reduction)
 
18.3 gm +(38.6+ 1*38.6/80.7)gm+ (40.1+1*40.1/80.7)+(2+1*2/80.7) =100gm Coal
( Rationalisation)
 
 
18.3gm + 39.08gm + 40.6gm + 2.02gm = 100gm Coal
 
183gm+390.8gm+406gm+202gm = 1000gm Coal
 
% increase in Fixed Carbon content b’cs of 1% Moisture reduction
-0.48%
 
% increase in
Fixed Carbon content b’cs of 1% Moisture reduction
- 0.5%
 
% increase in Ash content b’cs of 1% Moisture reduction
- 0.02%
 
Heat Value increase in Coal b’cs of 0.48% increase in Fixed Carbon –
 4.8*7.84= 37.63 Kcal
 
Heat Value increase in Coal b’cs of 0.5% incre
ase in VM
 –
5*6.83= 34.15Kcal
 
Heat Value increase in Coal b’cs of 1% decrease in TM – 
 7.63+34.15=71.7 Kcal.

Activity (6)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
Susilo Hadi added this note
ok
binsan liked this
Dr supriyanto liked this
Sanjay Singh liked this
Sanjay Singh liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->