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Matter Documents

# Matter Documents

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07/10/2013

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Matter:properties and states.A summary
Natural Science
1 Secondary Education

Matter: properties and states. (1)
1. Matter: properties and measurement
Matter is everything that has
mass
and
volume.
The different materials or types of matter are also called
substances:
e.g. water, iron, salt. Each substance has
properties
that make it different from othersubstances.
1.1. General properties and specific properties

a) The properties
Matter has different properties:

General properties
are those common to all matter, like mass, volume, weight and density, and

Specific properties
are the characteristics that differentiate one kind of matter from another, likecolour, shape, size, texture, hardness, etc.
b) Measuring matter
Some properties can be measured and they are called
magnitudes:
the distance between two cities is amagnitude, but the beauty of the landscape between them is not.To measure a magnitude, we have to compare it with a standard measurement that we call a unit. To
express
a measurement
correctly
we must indicate a number followed by its unit (20,7 km, 70 g).
c) Intemational System of units (I.S.)
Scientists have created a system of units so that all of us can agree on how much things measure, theIntemational System (I.S.).
1.2. Length, surface area, volume and capacity

Length
is a magnitude which measures the distance between two points. The
unit
of length in I.S. isthe
metre
(m).

Surface area
is the magnitude that expresses a body’s extension in two dimensions (length and width).The
unit
of surface area in I.S. is the
square metre
(m
2
).

Volume
is a magnitude derived from length, and it isdefined as the amount of space an object occupies. Thevolume
unit
in I.S. is the
cubic metre
(m
3
).

Capacity
is the maximum amount of liquid a containerused to measure liquids can hold. The unit of capacity weuse most frequently is the litre (l or L), which is equivalentto 1 dm
3
. Its multiples and submultiples go from 10 to 10,so units of capacity are easy to handle.
The I.S. uses some prefixes to indicate the units that are multiples and submultiples of the main unit.
1.3. Mass, weight and density

Mass
is the amount of matter a body has. This magnitudeis measured with scales. Its
unit
in I.S. is the
kilogram
(kg).

Weight
is the force of attraction with which a body, likethe Earth, attracts an object: an object with a lot of mass will weigh more than an object with lessmass.
Mass does not vary from one place to another, but weight does vary.

The
density
of a substance is the relationship between its mass and the volume it occupies.

Matter: properties and states. (2)
For example, in the case a bottle full of water with 1 L of capacity (1.000 cm
3
), what is its mass? If you put iton the scales you will notice that it weighs 1,000 g (without counting the mass of the bottle). If you fill itwith mercury, it will occupy the same volume, 1,000 cm
3
; but if you measure its mass, you will see it is13,600 g.We say mercury has a higher density than water because a certain volume of mercury has more mass andso it weighs more than the same volume of water. Different substances have different densities.Mathematically, density is expressed as follows:
Density = Mass/Volume

The unit of density in I.S. is the
kg/m
3
,
although we often use the
g/cm
3
.