Matter: properties and states. (1)
1. Matter: properties and measurement
Matter is everything that has
The different materials or types of matter are also called
e.g. water, iron, salt. Each substance has
that make it different from othersubstances.
1.1. General properties and specific properties
a) The properties
Matter has different properties:
are those common to all matter, like mass, volume, weight and density, and
are the characteristics that differentiate one kind of matter from another, likecolour, shape, size, texture, hardness, etc.
b) Measuring matter
Some properties can be measured and they are called
the distance between two cities is amagnitude, but the beauty of the landscape between them is not.To measure a magnitude, we have to compare it with a standard measurement that we call a unit. To
we must indicate a number followed by its unit (20,7 km, 70 g).
c) Intemational System of units (I.S.)
Scientists have created a system of units so that all of us can agree on how much things measure, theIntemational System (I.S.).
1.2. Length, surface area, volume and capacity
is a magnitude which measures the distance between two points. The
of length in I.S. isthe
is the magnitude that expresses a body’s extension in two dimensions (length and width).The
of surface area in I.S. is the
is a magnitude derived from length, and it isdefined as the amount of space an object occupies. Thevolume
in I.S. is the
is the maximum amount of liquid a containerused to measure liquids can hold. The unit of capacity weuse most frequently is the litre (l or L), which is equivalentto 1 dm
. Its multiples and submultiples go from 10 to 10,so units of capacity are easy to handle.
The I.S. uses some prefixes to indicate the units that are multiples and submultiples of the main unit.
1.3. Mass, weight and density
is the amount of matter a body has. This magnitudeis measured with scales. Its
in I.S. is the
is the force of attraction with which a body, likethe Earth, attracts an object: an object with a lot of mass will weigh more than an object with lessmass.
Mass does not vary from one place to another, but weight does vary.
of a substance is the relationship between its mass and the volume it occupies.