sawdust offers a potential saving of 237cover manure, if material costs, overhead.and yields are the same. Where thesawdust would be available at no cost,the saving woulcl be
shown in the photographs,
is very different from
does not grow in thefamiliar button form characteristic
It does not have thethick “meaty” tissue of the
buttcns. In shape and growth
re-sembles more closely the Japaneseshiitake mushrocNm. Like the latter.it has a tough, inedible stem. Theflavor, hoivever,
more like that
Lvould appear tohave
greatest value as a flavoringingredient for soups, sauces, and graviesrather than as
fresh mushroom fortable
hfushrooms are a source of essentialamino acids and of the B vitamins
They can be “factory-pro-duced” the year around from wasteproducts which originate from non-
depleting sources and may be visualizedas an important food source for thefuture. Full realization of the marketpotential, ho\vever, awaits more effi-cient production and lo\l-er cost.
Pror. Am. Soc. Hort.
890-3 (1953).(5) Block,
Dallas, Tex.. April 1950.(6) Dzvidson.
B.. Jr.. Fellers.
355-6 (1949).(8) Humfeld. H.. Sugihara.
12 (1941).(10) Lambert,
129-30 (1942).131 (1953).(13) Sinden’,
1-26 (1946).(15) Sinden,
52-9 (1950).(16) Stoller, B.
397-414 (1943).(17) Thom,
Wilkins,Baltimore, 1926.(18) Treschotv,
Danske Botan. .4rkiu.
934).(20) M‘inters, R.
\Vood Waste in
C.MUSTAKAS,J. E. HUBBARD, H.
C. RAETHER,and C.
LANGFORD’Northern Utilization Research andDevelopment Division, U.
To meet the needs of our nation in an emergency, a process was developed to recovercrude rnorphine liquor from mature, domestically grown, opium poppy plants.
liquorcan be used by licensed refiners as a substitute for opium to produce medicinal morphine,if
opium imports should be severely limited or cut
of the morphinewas extracted from meal with water-saturated isobutyl alcohol in a continuous counter-current extractor.In preparing the meal, sterns and seed were separated from capsularmaterial by a four-step size-reduction procedure with a
morphine Morphineconcentration in the meal was increased from
An aqueous ammonia treat-ment
the meal prior to extraction liberated the alkaloids from their naturally occurringsalts. Poppy meal or straw keeps in dry sforage without any morphine
is the source of me-
dicinal morphine in the UnitedStates.
ensure adequite suppliesof morphine in
national emergency.work \vas undertaken
recovxing crule morphineliquor from the mature capsules
opiumpoppy plants gro\\n in the United States.Opium
the dried juice
latex ofunripe capsules of a particular poppyspecies,
.Althoughthe opium poppy has been grown forthousands
still ob-tained through much tedious manualwork, both in cultivating the plant andin collecting the latex
Present address, 5646 Chelsea Are.,North,
alkalcids are found in opium. but onlythree-morphine. codeine. and papaver-ine-are of commercial importance. Theamount of morphine varies over widelimits, but in a good grade of opium tiecontent averages 10%. and t’le codeineand papaverine are present in muchsmaller amounts.Interest in cheaper producticnmethods led to the deirelopment ofmore modern processes
recweringopium alkaloids directly Gm the rip-ened p3ppy plant. and some
put into cqmmercialoperation on a very limited scale inGermany, Switzerland, and Hungar).in the 1930’s
From informa-tion given in the literature for these andother processes
each appears tohave disadvantages.
All of thesamples were analyzed by the Matchettand Levine method
but for arapid estimate, a modification of Hanes’ferricyanide micromethod for deter-mining reducing sugars
was employed.Most analysts believe the Matchettand Levine method
insufficiently spe-cific for morphine
therefore, acommercial morphine refiner checkedduplicate samples from one of the ex-traction tests. The extract liquor wasexamined for
morphine content by amodified
Pharmacopoeia methodand a special method was used for thepoppy meal
Theopium poppy was grown under irriga-tion by the Field Crops ResearchBranch of the