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ultracapacitor Seminar Report

ultracapacitor Seminar Report

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Published by Surya Pratap Singh

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Published by: Surya Pratap Singh on May 20, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 General Electric engineers experimenting with devices using porous carbonelectrodes first observed the EDLC effect in 1957.
They believed that the energywas stored in the carbon pores and the device exhibited "exceptionally highcapacitance", although the mechanism was unknown at that time. General Electricdid not immediately follow up on this work. In 1966 researchers at Standard Oil of Ohio developed the modern version of the devices, after they accidentally re-discovered the effect while working on experimental
fuel c
ell designs.
Their celldesign used two layers of activated charcoal separated by a thin porous insulator,and this basic mechanical design remains the basis of most electric double-layer capacitors. Standard Oil also failed to commercialize their invention, licensing thetechnology to NEC, who finally marketed the results as ³supercapacitors´ in 1978,to provide backup power for maintaining computer memory.
The marketexpanded slowly for a time, but starting around the mid-1990s various advances inmaterials science and refinement of the existing systems led to rapidly improving performance and an equally rapid reduction in cost. The first trials of supercapacitors in industrial applications were carried out for supporting theenergy supply to robots.
In 2005 aerospace systems and controls company DiehlLuftfahrtElektronik GmbH chose supercapacitors to power emergency actuationsystems for doors and evacuation slides in airliners, including the new Airbus 380 jumbo jet.
In 2005, the ultracapacitor market was between US $272 million and$400 million, depending on the source. As of 2007 all solid state micrometer-scaleelectric double-layer capacitors based on advanced superionic conductors had beenfor low-voltage electronics such as deep-sub-voltage nanoelectronics and relatedtechnologies (the 22 nm technological node of CMOS and beyond).
The electrochemical ultracapacitor is an emerging technology that promises to playan important role in meeting the demands of electronic devices and systems bothnow and in the future. This newly available technology of ultracapacitors ismaking it easier for engineers to balance their use of both energy and power.Energy storage devices like ultracapacitors are normally used along with batteriesto compensate for the limited battery power capability. Evidently, the proper control of the energy storage systems presents both a challenge and opportunity for the power and energy management system. This paper traces the history of thedevelopment of the technology and explores the principles and theory of operationof the ultracapacitors. The use of ultracapacitors in various applications arediscussed and their advantages over alternative technologies are considered. To provide examples with which to outline practical implementation issues, systemsincorporating ultracapacitors as vital components are also explored. This paper hasaimed to provide a brief overview of ultracapacitor technology as it stands today.Previous development efforts have been described to place the current state of thetechnology within an historical context. Scientific background has also beencovered in order to better understand performance characteristics.Possible applications of ultracapacitor technology have also been described toillustrate the wide range of possibilities that exist. Because of the advantages of charging efficiency, long lifetime, fast response, and wide operating temperaturerange, it is tempting to try and apply ultracapacitors to any application that requiresenergy storage. The limitations of the current technology must be fully appreciated,however, and it is important to realize that ultracapacitors are only useful within afinite range of energy and power requirements. Outside of these boundaries other alternatives are likely to be the better solution. The most important thing toremember about ultracapacitors technology is that it is a new and differenttechnology in its own right.
Comparison of construction diagrams of three capacitors. Left: "normal" capacitor,middle: electrolytic, right: electric double-layer capacitorIn a conventionalcapacitor, energy is stored by the removal of charge carriers, typically electrons,from one metal plate and depositing them on another. This charge separationcreates a potential between the two plates, which can be harnessed in an externalcircuit. The total energy stored in this fashion is proportional to both the amount of charge stored and the potential between the plates. The amount of charge stored per unit voltage is essentially a function of the size, the distance, and the material properties of the plates and the material in between the plates (the dielectric), whilethe potential between the plates is limited by breakdown of the dielectric. Thedielectric controls the capacitor's voltage.

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