carbon from the metal particle leads to the formation of tubular carbonsolids in a sp2 structure. The characteristics of the carbon nanotubesproduced by CVD method depend on the working conditions such as thetemperature and the operation pressure, the kind, volume andconcentration of hydrocarbon, the nature, size and the pretreatment of metallic catalyst, the nature of the support and the reaction time. Byvarying the active particles on the surface of the catalyst, the nanotubediameter can be controlled. The length of the tubes depends on thereaction time; even up to 60 mm long tubes can be produced.
Schematic demonstration of CVD method. (a) Horizontalfurnace. (b) Vertical furnace. (c) Fluidized bed reactor.
©Trisha Banerjee , 2011
Using CVD method, several structural forms of carbon are formedsuch as amorphous carbon layers on the surface of the catalyst, filamentsof amorphous carbon, graphite layers covering metal particles, SWNTsand MWNTs made from well-crystallized graphite layers. This methodallows selective CNT growth in a variety of forms, such as powder andaligned forrest of CNTs . The produced tubes can adopt various shapes;they can be straight, curved, planar-spiral, and helix, often with aremarkably constant pitch. The fibers often have an amorphous carboncoating, and metal particles are sometimes found at their tips. Inparticular, CCVD provides the possibility of growing CNTs from controlledsurface sites by catalyst patterning on a desired substrate. This permitsspecific applications, e.g., field-emission displays, specific architecture of a nanotube device or probe tips of scanning probe microscopes (SPM).Planar arrays of aligned nanotubes over large areas with sufficiently highdensity and order have been also grown on single-crystal substrates of sapphire or quartz, which for instance enable their easy integration intohigh-performance planar devices . In Table 3, the formation of variouskinds of carbonaceous materials is listed regarding to the different CVDmethods and different reaction conditions.
Summary of the articles reporting CVD production of carbonnanoarchitectures.