2.Electric Motors26Bureau of Energy Efficiency
The speed of a motor is the number of revolutions in a given time frame, typically revolutionsper minute (RPM). The speed of an AC motor depends on the frequency of the input power andthe number of poles for which the motor is wound. The synchronous speed in RPM is given bythe following equation, where the frequency is in hertz or cycles per second:Indian motors have synchronous speeds like 3000 / 1500 / 1000 / 750 / 600 / 500 / 375 RPMcorresponding to no. of poles being 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 (always even) and given the mainsfrequency of 50 cycles / sec.The actual speed, with which the motor operates, will be less than the synchronous speed.The difference between synchronous and full load speed is called slip and is measured in per-cent. It is calculated using this equation:As per relation stated above, the speed of an AC motor is determined by the number of motor poles and by the input frequency. It can also be seen that theoretically speed of an ACmotor can be varied infinitely by changing the frequency. Manufacturer's guidelines should bereferred for practical limits to speed variation. With the addition of a Variable Frequency Drive(VFD), the speed of the motor can be decreased as well as increased.
The power factor of the motor is given as:As the load on the motor comes down, the magnitude of the
reduces.However, there is no corresponding reduction in the
which is propor-tional to supply voltage with the result that the motor power factor reduces, with a reduction inapplied load. Induction motors, especially those operating below their rated capacity, are themain reason for low power factor in electric systems.
Two important attributes relating to efficiency of electricity use by A.C. Induction motors areefficiency (
), defined as the ratio of the mechanical energy delivered at the rotating shaft tothe electrical energy input at its terminals, and power factor (PF). Motors, like other inductiveloads, are characterized by power factors less than one. As a result, the total current draw need-ed to deliver the same real power is higher than for a load characterized by a higher PF. Animportant effect of operating with a PF less than one is that resistance losses in wiring upstreamof the motor will be higher, since these are proportional to the square of the current. Thus, botha high value for
and a PF close to unity are desired for efficient overall operation in a plant.Squirrel cage motors are normally more efficient than slip-ring motors, and higher-speedmotors are normally more efficient than lower-speed motors. Efficiency is also a function of 120
FrequencySynchronous Speed (RPM) =No. of PoleskWPower Factor = Cos
=kVASynchronous Speed – Full Load Rated SpeedSlip (%) =