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DEWATERING – CONTROL OF GROUNDWATER

DEWATERING – CONTROL OF GROUNDWATER

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Published by Eric Akomeah

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Published by: Eric Akomeah on May 20, 2011
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05/12/2014

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DEWATERING ±CONTROL OF GROUNDWATER 
Constructionofbuildings,powerhouses,dams,locksandmanyotherstructuresrequiresexcavationbelowthewatertableintowater-bearingsoils.Suchexcavationsrequireloweringthewatertablebelowtheslopesandbottomoftheexcavationtopreventravelingorsloughingoftheslopeandtoensuredry,firmworkingconditionsforconstructionoperations.Groundwatercanbecontrolledbymeansofoneormoretypesofdewateringsystemsappropriatetothesizeanddepthoftheexcavation,geologicalconditions,andcharacteristicsofthesoil.Constructionsitesaredewateredforthefollowingpurposes:1-Toprovidesuitableworkingsurfaceofthebottomoftheexcavation.2-Tostabilizethebanksoftheexcavationthusavoidingthehazardsofslidesandsloughing.3-Topreventdisturbanceofthesoilatthebottomofexcavationcausedbyboilsorpiping.Suchdisturbancesmayreducethebearingpowerofthesoil.Loweringthewatertablecanalsobeutilizedtoincreasetheeffectiveweightofthesoilandconsolidatethesoillayers.Reducinglateralloadsonsheetingandbracingisanotherwayofuse.A number of methods are available for controlling the inflow of water into an excavation; the choice of method will depend on the nature and permeability of the ground, the extent of the area to be dewatered, thedepth of the water table below ground level and the amount by which it has to be lowered, the proposedmethods of excavation and ground support, the proximity of existing structures, the proximity of water courses etc.
 
Theavailablemethodsofgroundwatercontrolfallintothefollowingbasicgroups:1.Surfacewatercontrollikeditches,trainingwalls,embankments.Simplemethodsofdivertingsurfacewater,openexcavations.Simplepumpingequipment.2.Gravitydrainage.Relativelyimpermeablesoils.Openexcavationsespeciallyonslopingsites.Simplepumpingequipment.3.Sumppumping(seebelow)4.Wellpointsystemswithsuctionpumps.(Seebelow)5.Shallow(bored)wellswithpumps.(Seebelow)6.Deep(bored)wellswithpumps.(Seebelow).7.Eductorsystem(Seebelow)8.Drainagegalleries.Removaloflargequantitiesofwaterfordamabutments,cut-offs,landslidesetc.Largequantitiesofwatercanbedrainedintogallery(smalldiametertunnel)anddisposedofbyconventionallarge±scalepumps.9.Electro-osmosis.Usedinlowpermeabilitysoils(silts,siltyclays,somepeats)whennoothermethodissuitable.Directcurrentelectricityisappliedfromanodes(steelrods)tocathodes(well-points,i.e.smalldiameterfilterwells)Exclusionmethods;(notcoveredinthisnote)1.Groundfreezing(ammoniumbrinerefrigerationorliquidnitrogenrefrigeration).Alltypesosaturatedsoils.2.Slurrytrenchcut-offwallswithbentoniteornativeclayandDiaphragmconcretewalls.Allsoils.Curtainwallsaroundexcavationswithflatbuckets.3.Impervioussoilbarrier.Allsoils.Relativelyshallowapplications(5-6mmax.).Back-hoesformtheclayfilledbarrierssomedistancefromtheexcavationboundaries.4.Sheetpiling.Allsoilsexceptsoilswithlargeboulders.5.Secant(interlocked)pilingortangentpilingwithgroutinginbetween.Allsoilsexceptboulders.6.Compressedair.Alltypesofsaturatedsoilsandrock.Applicationsintunnels,shaftsandcaissons.7.Groutedcut-offs(jetgrouting,cementatiousgrouts,chemicalgroutsetc.)
 
Asumpismerelyaholeinthegroundfromwhichwaterisbeingpumpedforthepurposeofremovingwaterfromtheadjoiningarea(Fig9.1).Theyareusedwithditchesleadingtotheminlargeexcavations.Uptomaximumof8m belowpumpinstallationlevel;forgreaterdepthsasubmersiblepumpisrequired.Shallowslopesmayberequiredfounsupportedexcavationsinsiltsandfinesands.Gravelsandcoarsesandsaremoresuitable.Finesmaybeeasilyremovedfromgroundandsoilscontaininglargepercentoffinesarenotsuitable.Ifthereareexistingfoundationsinthevicinitypumpingmaycausesettlementofthesefoundations.Subsidenceofadjacentgroundandsloughingofthelowerpartofaslope(slopedpits)mayoccur.Thesumpshouldbepreferablylinedwithafiltermaterialwhichhasgrainsizegradationsincompatiblewiththefilterrules.Forprolongedpumpingthesumpshouldbepreparedbyfirstdrivingsheetingaroundthesumpareaforthefulldepthofthesumpandinstallingacageinsidethesumpmadeowiremeshwithinternalstruttingoraperforatingpipefillingthefiltermaterialinthespaceoutsidethecageandatthe bottomofthecageandwithdrawingthesheeting.TwosimplesumpingdetailsareshowninFigures2and3.
9.1.Sumps
and
sump
 
pumpi
ng

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