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Head injuries

Head injuries

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Published by Qasim Haleimi

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Published by: Qasim Haleimi on May 20, 2011
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02/10/2013

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FORENSIC MEDICINE
HEAD INJURIES
KING FAISAL UNIVERSITYCOLLEGE OF MEDICNEYEAR: 2011NAME: Qasim Hussain AL-HaleimiAC: 207002113
 
 
Content:
 
 Introduction
 
Scalp Injuries
 
Skull Fractures
 
 Brain damage
--------------------------------------------------------------
 
 Introduction:
Of all regional injuries, those of the head and neck are the most common and most important in forensic practice.
 Importance because:
 
The head is the target of choice in the great majority of assaults involving blunt trauma.
 
When the victim is pushed or knocked to the ground, he often strikes his head.
 
The brain and its coverings are vulnerable to degrees of blunt trauma that would rarely be lethal if applied to other areas.Head Injuries is divided in to:-Scalp injuries-Skull injuries-Brain injuries-Facial injuiesSometimes facial injuries are classified as a separate category.
 
 
Scalp Injuries:
 All types of wounds can occur in the scalp as abrasion, laceration, & contusion. Examination of the scalp injuries usually requires shaving the area around the injure. Anatomy of the scalp: Layers of the scalp:
Thescalpconsists of 5 layers.These layers arranged from superficial to deep can be remembered from the letters of the scalp:
1)S
Skin:
It is thick, hairy and contains numerous sebaceous glands.
 
2)
Connective tissue
:
 
 It is dense fibro-fatty layer. Its fibrous septa uniting the skin to theaponeurosis. All nerves and vessels of the scalp are present in this layer with free anastomosis between the vessels.3) A
 Aponeurosis:
It is the tendon of the occipitofrontalis muscle. It is separated from the periosteum of the skull by a space called the subaponeurotic space. It is a continuous space closed at the margins of the scalp.
 
4) L 
 Loose areolar tissue
:
 
 It consists of loose fibrous bands occuping the subaponeurotic spaceand extending from the aponeurosis to the periosteum. It contains few small arteries and some important emissary veins. These veins are valveless veins connecting the scalp veins with the skull diploic veins and the intracranial dural venous sinuses.
 
5)P 
 Pericranium (outer periosteum of the skull 
): It is loosely attached to and easily separated fromthe skull bones. It is continuous with the inner periosteum at the sutures and so there is a separate spacebetween the pericranium and each skull bone.
 

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