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Chapter 1 Ships Electrical Systems Safety & Maintenance

Chapter 1 Ships Electrical Systems Safety & Maintenance

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Published by bear7
Practical Marine Electrical knowledge_1
Practical Marine Electrical knowledge_1

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Published by: bear7 on May 21, 2011
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03/12/2014

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ChapterOne:ShiPs'lectricalsystemssafetYndmaintenance
ShiF'EhctricdSystemElectricalDisgramsElectricalSefelyElcctricShocklnsulalbDResistsnceTestingInsulalionfestingContinuilyTestinS,MultimctersDbdcTestsCurrenlClampmetersLive-LineTestersGencralEleclricalMaintenance
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I ntroduclionl his chaptcrPrcscnlsanoverviewol a shiP'sclcctrc lslstcnranddcseribcsarious ypesofcircuitrliagramsuscdi|l clectrictwork. llasic clectrical:alelyprecautionsand electricaltestingllcthodstrcoutlincd toSctherwilhadcscripttottof gcncralclcctrical muinl€nance.Ships'clcctricNlsystemAuxiliaryscrvicesn btlarrlship rangerrttn cngitrctxrnlputltpsandlans' dcckwinchesandwindlasscs r.rcncral ighting,catcrirrgandair conditionrng.Elcctricalpower s usedodrivethe nrajority,rfthcseauxiliaryscrviccs.lhcclectricllpo$cr svslcltl)tlbturdship s designedtoprovidc a sccurcsupply 0 tll Iradswith ildcquittchtlill inpr()tccti()n ()t heequipmentandopcrarinS,crsttntrcl.fhcgcncralschctneofashipsch;ctriealPowcrsystems conlmont(tnearlyallships.
)aoG€IIERATORl{o 2OENERAIOR
€1,€RGEirYG€NERAIOR'lhcgcncratorsliotnctintesallcrl thctnators)producc heclcetriealprwcr' lt iscollcclcdalthe mainswitchboard andthcn tlistrihutcdt(! thcvarious auxiliary*.-rviccsonlprilinElhe
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clectricaload.Anemergencyeneratornd€mcrgency wirchboardmainrainuppliesnthecventof a mainpowerailure.compare thisgcneralayoutwiththesystem nyourship.Notc thegrearsimilaririesndalsonotethe differencesall ships'systemsiffer in somees1rcct.Thegeneratorsmay bc drivenby adieselengine.bya steamorgasurbine, or bythemainpropulsionengine.Therypeofprimemover sdererminedby thedesignof rheship andbycconomicactors.Thepowerrating ofth€ generatorss determinedby thepowerdemandofthe electricaload.Largepassengcrhipshavehreeor four largegeneratorsatedat2MW ormore o supplyheertcnsivc hotelservices n board.A cargoshipmay havewo maingeneratorsypically ratedfrom350 o l000kW whicharesufficiento supplyhe engine oomauxiliarieswhileat scaandthcwinchesor cranes or handlingcargo whileinport.Thelimiiedload requiredduringancmergency equires hathe emergencyeneratorsmay be atedrom about0kW fora smallcoaster o about300kWor more ora cargo iner.Theshipbuildermustestimaiehe numberandpowerratingofthe requiredgeneratorsy assessinghepnwerdemandf theoad orallsituationswhetheratseaor inport.Electrical poweron boardship scommonlygeneratedr 440V,60Hz(somerimes80V,50Hz). These valueshavebeen adoptedbecause heyare standardshorepracticen theAmericasand n Europe.Shipswithaveryargeelectricalpowerdemandmay be designedooperatet 3.3kV andeven6.6kV, or higher.The BritishStandard ndEC definirionf LOW VOLTAGEisbetween0Vacand10fi)Vac(theIECgivehisdefinirion o harmonizeritishand European tandards).Lightingandotherdomestic uppliessually perater I | 5V or220V, ingle-phase.rans-formersare used oreduce he/0r(,)Veoeraaedoltageo thissafer volrageev€I. Whereponableequipments to be usedn dangerous,hot and damplocations, t isadvisable oop€rateat 55V or even24V suppliedagainbyasrep-d()wnransformer.Occasionally,transformersre alsousedo step up volrages..g. supplyinglarge3.3kV bow thrustelmotor froma 4zl0Vswitchboardsupply.Batteriesorvariouservicesperatet I2V or24Vbutsomerimcsigher oltagesreused.ElcctricrldlrgrrmsTherearevariOusyp€sf diagramwhiehattcnrpt (|sh()w owanclcctrical ircuitoperates.Symbols reused o representtems fequipment. hc shipbuiltterrovidescomplete ctofships'lectrical iagrams.t is mgrrtanthatyou iudyrheseragramso bc abl,j oreadandunderstandhemcompctently,nd ouse hemas an aidn kxatingelectricataults.A BLOCKDIAGRAMshowsn simplifiedormhemain nrer-relationshipsftheelemenrsin asysl€m, ndhow hesystemorksormaybcoperai€d.uch iagramsreoft€nusedodepictcontrolsystemsnd oihercomplcxelarionships.
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Diagrams like thisstate thetuncti()nolcachbkrck butusually givcn. inlornrution of thccomfxlnents neach bklcknorhow thcbkxks arc intcrconncctedA SYSTEMDIAGRAMshowsthc murn lcltures ofasystcmand irs b()unds.withoutnecessarilyhowingcausc-o-effcct.lts matnuse s to illustratC hc ways()foperatingthe
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-sFtcm.Detril isomined in order to make the diagramasclearaspossible,and so easilyundcrstood.A CIRCUITDIACRAMshows, NFULL, the functioningof a circuit.All csscntialp.tt!rnd conncctiomare dcpictedby meansf symbolsarranged o showhe opcrationesclcrly.rpcriblcbur withoutrcgard lothephysicalayout of lhevarious lcms, thcirp$ltorconncc'tions.
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..O+O_-€-*----.-{.1---OThc clectricalconnectionsof rhe abovem(NorstarteJ are clearly shownin the simPlestpoesibleway. A most mportantF)intis thatno attempls madeo showhcmovinS onlaclsof e rclay or conlactoralongsidehe coil that operatcs therh(whcrcthey aacactually
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