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https://www.scribd.com/doc/55946409/Vedic2

05/21/2011

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Vedic Mathematics - Part II

In Vedic Mathematics, we have: specific techniques and general techniques. Thespecific techniques are fast and effective but can only be applied to a particularcombination of numbers. On the other hand, Vertically and Crosswise method is one ofthe general techniques in Vedic Mathematics , as it can be used to multiply numbers ofany possible combination of digits. Thus general techniques have a much wider scope ofapplication than specific techniques because they deal with a wider range of numbers.Here first we will discuss some of the specific techniques.

Squaring Numbers Ending in a 5

By way of notation, 2

2

means 2 times 2 or 4 and 3

2

means 3 times 3 or 9. What if youare asked to calculate 45

2

or 65

2

or the square of any number ending in a 5 ( a numberwith unit digit 5) ? More than likely, we would need pencil and paper or a calculator towork it out. One of the Vedic Mathematics Sutras “one more than the one before” canhelp us to solve the questions immediately. Very simply, multiply the digit(s) to the left ofthe 5 by the next higher number and then write 25 after it.For example, let’s apply this sutra to the calculation of 45

2

.

1

st

step

: Determine the number to the left of the 5. That number is 4 in our example.

2

nd

step

: Multiply this number by next higher number . This means multiply the 4 by 5.This results in the number 20.

3

rd

step

: Follow this result with the number 25. This means the number 25 will follow 20.That is 2,025.This is the answer to the problem.Let’s try 65

2

:1

st

step: The number 62

nd

step: 6 times 7 equals 423

rd

step: follow 42 with 25, which is 4225.

Algebraic proof:

Consider (ax + b)

2

Ξ

a

2

. x

2

+ 2abx + b

2

.This identity for x = 10 and b = 5 becomes(10a + 5)

2

= a

2

. 10

2

+ 2. 10a . 5 + 5

2

= a

2

. 10

2

+ a. 10

2

+ 5

2

= (a

2

+ a ) . 10

2

+ 5

2

= a (a + 1) . 10

2

+ 25

Clearly 10a + 5 represents two-digit numbers 15, 25, 35, -------,95 for the values a = 1, 2,3, -------,9 respectively. In such a case the number (10a + 5)

2

is of the form whose L.H.Sis

a (a + 1)

and R.H.S is 25, that is,

a (a + 1) / 25

Similar proof can be given for 3 or more digit numbers.

Multiplication with a series of 9’s

Students often fear multiplication of numbers, which involve lot of 9’s in them. Howeverthe truth is exactly the opposite. The higher the number of 9’s in the question, the easierit is to calculate the correct answer.There can be three cases with multiplication with series of 9’sA. Multiplying a number with an equal number of 9’sB. Multiplying a number with more number of 9’sC. Multiplying a number with less number of 9’sHere we are discussing Case – A only and leaving the rest two cases for the readers toexplore.

Question: Multiply 764 by 999

•

We subtract 1 from 764 and write half the answer as 763.

•

Now we will be dealing with 763. Subtract each of the digits seven , six and threefrom nine and write down them in answer followed by 763 one by one.97 6 32 3 6

•

Nine minus seven is two, nine minus six is three and nine minus 3 is six.

•

The half answer already obtained was 763 and now we suffix the digits obtainedin previous step. The final answer is 763236

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