The Three Bees
There are different castes of honey bees: Worker, Drone and Queen. Each castehas its own important roles and performs specific duties in a bee colony.
Workers are the smallest of the bee castes, but are by far the mostnumerous. All workers are female, but normally incapable of reproduction.They are unable to mate, but in a hopelessly queenless colony, workers maybegin to lay unfertilized eggs, which develop into drones. Workers do all of the necessary tasks within a colony. They secrete the wax used in the hive,and form it into honeycombs. They forage for all of the nectar and pollenbrought into the hive, and transform the nectar into honey. They produceroyal jelly to feed to the queen and young larvae. They also tend to the needs of the larvae andqueens. They cap the cells of mature larvae for pupation and remove debris and dead beesfrom the hive. Worker bees defend the hive against intruders and maintain the optimaltemperature by heating or cooling and ventilating the hive with their wings. Workers have well-developed compound eyes on the sides of their heads, and three simple eyes (ocelli) at thevertex. Their tongue is well developed and elongated for sucking up nectar from flowers.Workers reared in the spring and early summer tend to live for five to six weeks. The first twoweeks of their lives is spent as house bees, doing tasks in the hive. The remainder of this time isspent as field bees, foraging for food outside the hive. Workers that reach maturity in the latefall may live well into the following spring. They must maintain a cluster of bodies around thequeen bee, keeping her warm through the winter months. Later, when egg-laying resumes,they must raise the first generation of young bees the next year.
The queen bee can be recognized by her abdomen, which is usuallysmooth, and elongated, extending well beyond her folded wings. Herfunction in the hive is one of production. She is the only reproductivefemale in the colony. Egg-laying begins in early spring, initiated whenthe first spring pollen is brought home by the workers. Eggproduction will continue until fall, or as long as pollen is available. Atthe height of her productivity, the queen could lay as many as 2000eggs each day. A queen bee can live for up to five years, but her