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topology
topology

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08/08/2014

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I.1
Locally Euclidean
Spaces
The basic objects
of
study
in
differentialgeometry
are
certain topological
spaces
called
manifolds.
Oe
crucial
property
that
manifolds
possess
is
that
they
are
locally
just
likeeuclidean
space.Formally,this
means
that
for each
suchspace,
there
is
an
integer
m
suchthat each point
of
the
space
has a
neighborhood
that
is
homeomorphic
to an
open
set
of
Rm.Weshall call
such
a
space
locally
m-euclidean.
If
m = 1,
we
picture
thespaceas
a
curve,and
if
m = 2,
we
picture
it
as
a
surface.
Further
conditions
on
the
space
are necessary,
however,
if
these
ways
of
picturing
it
areto
be
correct.
But
it
is
not
immediately
clear what
theseconditions
should
be.
We
consider hereseveral
suchconditions,
before
deciding
which
we
shallimpose
in
order
thatthe
space
should
be
called
a
manifold.
We
consider them
in
orderof increasingstrength.
If
X
is
locally m-euclidean,
a few
conditionshold
immediately.
Tlhe
space
X
is,
forinstance,
locally compact
and
locally metrizable,because
tRm
satisfiesthese conditions.
Furthermore,
X
stisfies
the
T
axiom:
If
x
is
a
point
of
X, we show
jx3
is
a
closed
set of
X.
Let
y be
another point
of
X.
Choose
a
neighborhood
U
of
y
such that
there
is
ahomeomorphismh
of
U
with
an openset
of
R
.
If
U
does not
contain
x,
then
U
is
a
neighborhood
of
y
disjoint
from
x .
If
U
does
contain
x,
thenin the
open
set
h(U) of
R
,
we
may
choose
a neighborhoodW
of
h(y)
disjointfrom
h(x);the
set
h (W)
i:
then
a
neighborhood
of
y
disjointfrom
x).
Ir
the followingdiscussion,
X
denotes
a
space
that
is
locally m-euclidean.Hausdorff.Although
X
satisfies
the
T
1
axiom,
it
need not
be
Hausdorff.Exercise
6
of
§36
provides an
example
of
a
space that
is
locally-euclidean
but
not Hausdorff.
It is
commonlycalled
the
"line
with
two origins."Similarexamples
exist
forevery
value
of
m.
If
we
imposethe
condition
that
X
be
Hausdorff,
thenX
becomes
a
locally
compact
Hausdorffspace,
from which
it
follows
that
X
is
regular,indeed,
completely
regular.(See
Exercise
7
of
§33.)

1.2
Normal.
However,
the
conditionthat
X
be
Hausdorff
does not
imply
that
X
is
normal.
Tere
is
a
famous
example,
called
the
"Preufer
manifold,"
which
is
a
locally
2-euclideanspace that
is
Hausdorff
but
not
normal.
It
is
discussed
in
the
J
section
of
thesenotes.
Metrizable.
In
geometry,we
should
like
our
spacesto be
reasonably
nice.
Infact,
we
should
like
them
to
be
metrizable,
or
(even
better)
to
be
imbeddable
as
closedsets
insome
euclidean
space
EN.
Normality
is
not
sufficient,however,for eitherof
these conditions
to
hold.
There
is
an
example
called
the"long
line"
that provides
a
counterexample.
Itis
a
normal,locally
-euclidean
spacethat
is
not
metrizable.
It
is
discussed
in
the
C
sectionof
these
notes.
Requiring
X
to
be
metrizable
is
in
fact
equivalent
to
requiring
it
to,
paracompact
and Hausdorff.For
everymetrizable
space
is
paracompact
and
Hausdorff
(by
Theorem
41.4),
while
a
paracompactHausdorff
space that
is
locally
metrizable
is
metrizable
(by
Theorem
42.1).
Hausdorff
with a
countable
basis.
RequiringX
to
be metrizable
still
does
not ensure
that
it
can
be
imbedded
in
euclidean
space. Fcr example,
the product
space
R
xJ,
whIere
J
is
uncountable
and
has
the
discrete
topology,
is
locally
1-euclideanand
metrizable,but cannotbe
imbedded
in
euclideanspace(since
it
hasnocountablebasis).Since
X
is
locally
comppct,
requiring
X
to
be
Hausdorff
witha countable
basis will
ensurethat
it is
metrizable,
by
the
Urysohn
metrization
theorem.
It
will
in
fact
ensure
that
X
can
be
imbedded
in
N
forsome
N
The
compact
case
is
easy
and
is
dealt
with
in
§36;
thegeneral
case
.requires
more
work
(See
Exercise
7
of
§50).
These
to
the
following
definition:
Definition.
The
locally
m-euclidean
space
X
is
called
an
m-manifold
if
it is
Hausdorff
with
a
countablebasis.
Now
in
fact the
condition
of
being
Hausdorff
with
a
countable
basis
is
not
really
much
strongerthan
the
condition
of
metrizability.
For
if
the
locally
m-euclidean
space
X i metrizable,theneach
component
of
X
is
an