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Zolotukhin Reservoir Engineering 002

Zolotukhin Reservoir Engineering 002

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Published by Anttonio Gómez

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Published by: Anttonio Gómez on May 21, 2011
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Contents
1 Oil and Gas Resources and Reserves 7
1.1 Terminology and Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.2 Methods for Resources/Reserve Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.2.1 Analogy-Based Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.2.2 Volumetric Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.2.3 Performance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
I Fundamentals 15
2 Basic Concepts of Petroleum Geology 17
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.2 The Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.2.1 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.2.2 Nonclastic Sedimentary Rocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.3 The Origin and Habitat of Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.3.1 Source Rock and Generation of Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.3.2 Petroleum Migration and Accumulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.3.3 Classification of Petroleum Reservoir-Forming Traps . . . . . . . . . . 242.4 Types of Hydrocarbon Traps on the Norwegian Continental Shelf . . . . . . . . 28
3 Basic Concepts and Definitionsin Reservoir Engineering 31
3.1 Continuum Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313.2 Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323.3 Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323.3.1 Residual Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333.3.2 Laboratory Determination of Residual Oil and Water Saturation . . . . 343.4 Reservoir Pressure and Distribution of Fluid Phases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383.5 Pressure Distribution in Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4 Porosity 45
4.1 General Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454.2 Models of Porous Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454.2.1 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Parallel Cylindrical Pores . . 46i
 
4.2.2 Idealised Porous MediumRepresented byRegular Cubic-Packed Spheres474.2.3 Idealised Porous MediumRepresented byRegular Orthorhombic-Packedspheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474.2.4 Idealised Porous MediumRepresented byRegular Rhombohedral-Packedspheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484.2.5 Idealised Porous Medium Represented by Irregular-Packed Sphereswith Different Radii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484.3 Porosity Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504.4 Measurement of Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504.4.1 Full-Diameter Core Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504.4.2 Grain-Volume Measurements Based on Boyle’s Law . . . . . . . . . . 514.4.3 Bulk-Volume Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534.4.4 Pore-Volume Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544.4.5 Fluid-Summation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554.5 Uncertainty in Porosity Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574.6 Porosity Estimation from Well Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5 Permeability 63
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635.2 Darcys Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635.3 Conditions for Liquid Permeability Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685.4 Units of Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695.5 Gas Permeability Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715.5.1 Turbulent Gas Flow in a Core Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745.6 Factors Affecting Permeability Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765.6.1 The Klinkenberg Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6 Wettability and Capillary Pressure 83
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 836.2 Surface and Interfacial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 836.3 Rock Wettability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846.4 Contact Angle and Interfacial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866.5 Capillary Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886.5.1 Capillary Pressure Across Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886.5.2 Interfacial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906.5.3 Capillary Pressure in a Cylindrical Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906.6 Capillary Pressure and Fluid Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936.7 Pore Size Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 956.8 Saturation Distribution in Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986.9 Laboratory Measurements of Capillary Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016.10 Drainage and Imbibition Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1036.10.1 Hysterisis in Contact Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1056.10.2 Capillary Hysterisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105ii

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