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DeJong Wijbrans_Micro Sampling, Laser Probe & Apparent Loss Age Spectra Archean Hornblende (Lapland-Kola belt,Russia)_Terra Nova 2006

DeJong Wijbrans_Micro Sampling, Laser Probe & Apparent Loss Age Spectra Archean Hornblende (Lapland-Kola belt,Russia)_Terra Nova 2006

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Published by Koen de Jong
This study combines laser step-heating of small discs of tschermakitic hornblende, drilled from thin section under a petrographic microscope with furnace step-heating of hornblende separates. Comparison of laser stepheating and furnace step-heating data of the same samples shows that apparent loss age spectra for hornblende are due to small amounts of included much younger biotite that degasses earlier than the host amphibole during dating in the laboratory. This means that separates still contained biotite despite rigorous hand-picking. In contrast, hornblende discs, from which biotite could be avoided by targeted drilling and completely biotite free samples, did not show progressively rising age and Ca/K ratio spectra, but flat ones. The Neoarchaean ages for the hornblende and the Paleoproterozoic ages for biotite agree with the thermo-tectonic evolution of the Lapland-Kola Orogen in arctic European Russia.
This study combines laser step-heating of small discs of tschermakitic hornblende, drilled from thin section under a petrographic microscope with furnace step-heating of hornblende separates. Comparison of laser stepheating and furnace step-heating data of the same samples shows that apparent loss age spectra for hornblende are due to small amounts of included much younger biotite that degasses earlier than the host amphibole during dating in the laboratory. This means that separates still contained biotite despite rigorous hand-picking. In contrast, hornblende discs, from which biotite could be avoided by targeted drilling and completely biotite free samples, did not show progressively rising age and Ca/K ratio spectra, but flat ones. The Neoarchaean ages for the hornblende and the Paleoproterozoic ages for biotite agree with the thermo-tectonic evolution of the Lapland-Kola Orogen in arctic European Russia.

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Published by: Koen de Jong on May 22, 2011
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Apparent partial loss age spectra of Neoarchean hornblende(Murmansk Terrane, Kola Peninsula, Russia): the role of biotiteinclusions revealed by
40
Ar/
39
Ar laserprobe analysis
Koen de Jong
1
and Jan R. Wijbrans
2
1
Institut des Sciences de la Terre d’Orle´ ans, UMR 6113, Universite´ d’Orle´ ans, 45067 Orle´ ans 7 Cedex 2, France;
2
Department of IsotopeGeochemistry, Faculty of Life and Earth Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Introduction
40
Ar/
39
Ar age spectra with progres-sively rising apparent ages have beenwidely interpreted as caused by partialargon loss by diffusion during youngerthermo-tectonic reworking or slowcooling (Turner, 1969; Dallmeyer,1975; Harrison and McDougall,1980; Berry and McDougall, 1986;Wijbrans and McDougall, 1987; Lis-ter and Baldwin, 1996). Youngerapparent ages for the early gas releaseduring laboratory step-heating experi-ments were assumed to reflect theintragrain spatial distribution of ar-gon in samples. However, abundantevidence exists that a large portion of Ar release during step-heating of am-phiboles under vacuum occurs due tochemical and structural changes with-in the crystals, rather than by volumediffusion (Gaber
et al.
, 1988; Lee
et al.
, 1991; Wartho
et al.
, 1991;Wartho, 1995a). Consequently, Armay be released simultaneously fromcores and rims of crystals, leading tohomogenization of age gradients (Lee
et al.
, 1990; Kelley and Turner, 1991;Lee, 1993). This clearly implies thatage plateaux cannot
a priori 
be inter-preted simply as reflecting crystallattices with homogeneously distri-buted Ar and that minerals have beenunaffected by Ar loss or gain. Itsimilarly brings into question theinterpretation that age spectra withprogressively increasing apparent agesmay point to Ar loss by volumediffusion the classic interpretation.Trends in
40
Ar/
39
Ar age and Ca/Kand Cl/K ratio – proxies for
37
Ar
Ca
/
39
Ar
K
and
38
Ar
Cl
/
39
Ar
K
¢
respectively – spectra for hornblende are oftenrelated, pointing to degassing of aheterogeneous phase. This may be dueto chemical zonation of hornblende,the presence of exsolution featuresand/or included contaminant minerals(Berger, 1975; Berry and McDougall,1986; Harrison and Fitz Gerald, 1986;Onstott and Peacock, 1987; vonBlanckenburg and Villa, 1988; Onstottand Pringle-Goodell, 1988; Ross andSharp, 1988; Baldwin
et al.
, 1990;Kelley and Turner, 1991; Lee, 1993;Rex
et al.
, 1993; Lo and Onstott,1995; Wartho, 1995b; Villa
et al.
,1996, 2000; Ahn and Cho, 1998;Belluso
et al.
, 2000).To shed further light on the pheno-menon of apparent partial loss agespectra,weconcentratedonhornblendesfrom the Murmansk Terrane thatexperienced a tectono-metamorphicevolution of about 1 billion years.We combined classic furnace step-heating of hornblende and biotiteseparates with laserprobe step-heatingof tiny discs that were drilled fromcarefully selected inclusion-free horn-blende grains in thin sections under apetrographic microscope, using thetechnique of Verschure (1978).
Murmansk Terrane and theLapland–Kola Orogen
The Murmansk Terrane (MT) is oneof the Neoarchean terranes in thePalaeoproterozoic Lapland–KolaOrogen in the Kola Peninsula of Arctic European Russia (Fig. 1) andseparated from the other terranes bythe northwest-trending subverticalMurmansk Shear Zone (Fig. 2). TheMT predominantly comprises amphi-bolite facies, leuco- to mesocratic,tonalitic, trondhjemitic to granodio-ritic gneisses and intrusives with sub-ordinate metasedimentary material(Batiyeva and Bel’kov, 1968; Mitro-fanov, 2001). The few Rb–Sr whole-rock isochrons and U–Pb zircon agesfor tonalitic gneisses and a variety of enderbites to granites span 2.6–2.8 Ga(Vetrin, 1988; Pushkarev, 1990; Bala-shov
et al.
, 1992). Sm–Nd (Dm) modelages are between 2.68 and 3.06 Ga(Timmerman and Daly, 1995; Timmer-man, 1996).Following major crustal stretchingat
c.
2.45 Ga (Timmerman, 1996;
ABSTRACT
Metamorphic hornblende frequently yields spectra with pro-gressively increasing
40
Ar/
39
Ar age steps, often interpreted ascaused by partial resetting due to thermally activated radio-genic argon loss by solid-state diffusion. Yet, in many casesrising Ca/K ratio spectra for such samples imply the presence ofminor inclusions of K-contaminant minerals. To avoid parts ofgrains with mineral inclusions or compositional zoning wedrilled tiny discs from thin sections under a petrographicmicroscope. Laser step-heating of drilled biotite-free horn-blende discs yielded flat age and ratio spectra. In contrast,furnace step-heated hornblende separates from the samesamples produced apparent loss age spectra. Moreover, bio-tite-free samples yielded flat spectra by laser and furnacedating. Consequently, apparent loss spectra result from degas-sing of included substantially younger biotite before itshornblende host during laboratory step-heating;
c.
2640 Mahornblende ages constrain the Murmansk Terrane’s cooling.
Terra Nova, 18, 353–364, 2006
Correspondence: Dr K. de Jong, Depart-ment of Earth Sciences, University of Orleans, Batiment Geosciences, Orleans45067, France. Tel.: +33 0 2 38 49 46 46;fax: +33 0 2 38 41 73 08; e-mail: koen.dejong@univ-orleans.fr; or keuntie@netscape.net
Ó
2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
353
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2006.00699.x
 
Balagansky
et al.
, 2001), the orogenwas at least partly peneplaned in theearliest Palaeoproterozoic (Za-gorodny, 1982; Sturt
et al.
, 1994;Bridgwater
et al.
, 2001). Subductionof oceanic crust led to accretion of 1.96–1.91 Ga juvenile island arcs andterranes. Granulite and amphibolitefacies metamorphism occurred in theorogen’s suture zone at 1.92–1.90 Ga(Timmerman, 1996; Daly
et al.
, 2001).At about 1.76 Ga (Vetrin
et al.
, 2002),stitching plutons intruded terraneboundaries (Figs 1 and 2). Mica, whennot affected by excess or inheritedargon, yielded 1.75–1.70 Ga
40
Ar/
39
Arplateau ages in the Central Kolaand Belomorian Terranes and thenorthernmost part of the ArcheanKarelian Craton (Fig. 1; de Jong
et al.
, 1999).
Fig. 1
Tectonic sketch map of the Kola Peninsula, modified after Timmerman (1996) and Daly
et al.
(2001). The location of Fig. 2with position of the samples is outlined.
Fig. 2
Geological map of the area around Murmansk, modified after Mitrofanov (2001), with the sample localities: MT-10 andMT-11 (69
°
13
¢
12
¢¢
32
°
46
¢
0
¢¢
); MT-27 (69
°
16
¢
12
¢¢
32
°
47
¢
0
¢¢
). All samples have been taken well outside the area affected byretrogression and mylonitization related to the Murmansk Shear Zone and the contact aureole of the Litsa–Araguba intrusions.Minor Phanerozoic dolerites omitted. Lambert conformal conical projection.
Apparent partial loss age spectra of Neoarchean hornblende in Russia
K. de Jong and J.R. Wijbrans Terra Nova, Vol
18
, No. 5, 353–364
.............................................................................................................................................................
354
Ó
2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
 
Table 1
Representative electron probe micro-analyses of amphibole and biotite from the Murmansk Terrane
MT-10 hornblende Core Core Core Rim Rim Core Rim Rim Core Core
Wt.%
SiO
2
41.18 41.24 42.47 41.48 41.45 42.51 42.22 42.19 41.92 42.01TiO
2
1.00 1.10 0.81 0.83 1.28 1.56 1.26 0.87 0.99 1.13Al
2
O
3
11.51 11.67 11.07 11.31 11.62 11.33 10.95 11.30 11.41 10.90Cr
2
O
3
0.00 0.00 0.07 0.05 0.11 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07Fe
2
O
3
4.17 3.21 3.79 5.34 2.92 3.52 1.60 3.68 3.28 5.35FeO 17.30 18.31 17.53 16.59 18.10 17.96 19.02 18.05 17.54 15.52MnO 0.62 0.58 0.51 0.59 0.52 0.50 0.57 0.64 0.61 0.44MgO 7.58 7.34 7.83 7.94 7.61 7.73 7.68 7.53 7.95 8.10CaO 11.37 11.45 11.41 11.50 11.50 11.31 11.66 11.49 11.52 11.33Na
2
O 1.22 1.28 1.20 1.18 1.38 1.05 1.28 1.25 1.27 1.26K
2
O 1.44 1.57 1.26 1.44 1.39 1.55 1.45 1.25 1.46 1.39H
2
O 1.87 1.88 1.93 1.85 1.90 1.96 1.90 1.92 1.89 1.93F 0.09 0.10 0.04 0.17 0.09 0.02 0.09 0.05 0.12 0.02Cl 0.04 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.02total 99.39 99.76 99.92 100.29 99.90 101.14 99.70 100.23 99.97 99.46O
¼
F 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.07 0.04 0.00 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.00O
¼
Cl 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00total
ÕÕ
99.34 99.71 99.90 100.21 99.86 101.13 99.66 100.21 99.91 99.45Fe[t] as FeO 21.06 21.20 20.94 21.40 20.73 21.13 20.46 21.36 20.48 20.34
 pfu
Si 6.336 6.339 6.468 6.324 6.344 6.406 6.473 6.427 6.396 6.408Ti 0.115 0.127 0.093 0.096 0.148 0.177 0.146 0.100 0.113 0.129Al 2.087 2.114 1.986 2.032 2.097 2.013 1.979 2.028 2.052 1.960Cr 0.000 0.000 0.008 0.006 0.014 0.015 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.008Fe
3+
0.483 0.371 0.434 0.613 0.337 0.399 0.184 0.422 0.376 0.614Fe
2+
2.226 2.354 2.232 2.115 2.316 2.264 2.439 2.299 2.238 1.980Mn 0.080 0.076 0.066 0.077 0.068 0.064 0.074 0.083 0.079 0.057Mg 1.738 1.680 1.777 1.803 1.735 1.737 1.755 1.709 1.807 1.842Ca 1.874 1.886 1.861 1.878 1.885 1.827 1.916 1.875 1.884 1.851Na 0.365 0.381 0.353 0.348 0.411 0.307 0.380 0.369 0.375 0.371K 0.282 0.309 0.245 0.280 0.272 0.297 0.284 0.244 0.284 0.271total 15.587 15.636 15.524 15.569 15.626 15.506 15.631 15.555 15.605 15.492Al(iv) 1.664 1.661 1.532 1.676 1.656 1.594 1.527 1.573 1.604 1.592mg num 0.438 0.416 0.443 0.460 0.428 0.434 0.418 0.426 0.447 0.482A site 0.647 0.690 0.598 0.628 0.683 0.604 0.664 0.613 0.659 0.642Ca/K 6.65 6.10 7.60 6.71 6.93 6.15 6.75 7.68 6.63 6.83
MT-10 biotite Core Core Core Rim Rim Core Rim Rim Core Core
Wt.%
SiO
2
35.74 35.87 35.88 36.06 35.64 36.37 36.06 35.67 35.95 36.10TiO
2
2.55 2.22 2.31 2.47 2.43 2.77 2.48 2.50 2.64 2.39Al
2
O
3
15.50 15.88 15.63 15.65 15.50 15.26 15.21 14.73 14.85 15.72FeO 21.28 21.97 22.22 22.02 22.17 21.64 21.95 22.30 22.30 21.83MnO 0.45 0.25 0.25 0.17 0.31 0.43 0.32 0.41 0.28 0.27MgO 10.13 9.81 9.73 9.53 9.48 9.72 9.77 9.67 9.52 9.86CaO 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Na
2
0 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.05 0.02 0.02K
2
O 9.56 9.71 9.61 9.57 9.72 9.67 9.75 9.57 9.76 9.50BaO 0.20 0.25 0.17 0.13 0.16 0.24 0.29 0.08 0.08 0.08H
2
O 3.74 3.67 3.74 3.73 3.69 3.78 3.68 3.78 3.78 3.77F 0.26 0.29 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.22 0.34 0.02 0.12 0.22Cl 0.04 0.31 0.27 0.30 0.29 0.06 0.16 0.20 0.09 0.09total 99.51 100.29 100.01 99.87 99.60 100.17 100.01 98.97 99.39 99.86O
¼
F 0.11 0.12 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.14 0.00 0.05 0.09O
¼
Cl 0.00 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.01 0.04 0.05 0.02 0.02total O 99.39 100.10 99.89 99.73 99.45 100.07 99.83 98.92 99.32 99.74
 pfu
Si 5.528 5.530 5.543 5.567 5.539 5.591 5.576 5.576 5.590 5.559Ti 0.297 0.257 0.268 0.286 0.284 0.321 0.288 0.294 0.309 0.277
Terra Nova, Vol
18
, No. 5, 353–364 K. de Jong and J.R. Wijbrans
Apparent partial loss age spectra of Neoarchean hornblende in Russia
.............................................................................................................................................................
Ó
2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
355

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