By man I mean the living, conscious, thinking Self, the individual; by bodies, the various casingsin which this Self is enclosed, each casing enabling the Self to function in some definite regionof the universe. As a man might use a carriage on the land, a ship on the water, an aeroplane inthe air, to travel from one place to another, and yet in all places remain himself, so does the Self,the real man, remain himself no matter in what body he is functioning; and as carriage, ship andaeroplane vary in materials and arrangement according to the element in which each is destinedto move, so does each body vary according to the environment in which it is to act. One isgrosser than another, one shorter-lived than another, one has fewer capacities than another; butall have this in common - that relatively to the man they are transient, his instruments, hisservants, wearing out and renewed according to their nature, and adapted to his varying needs,his growing powers. We will study them one by one, beginning with the lowest, and then takethe man himself, the actor in all the bodies.
THE PHYSICAL BODY
Under the term physical body must be included the two lower principles of man - called in our old terminology the Sthūla Sharīra and Linga Sharīra - since they both function on the physical plane, are composed of physical matter, are formed for the period of one physical life, are castoff by the man at death, and disintegrate together in the physical world when he passes on intothe astral.Another reason for classing these two principles as our physical body or physical vehicle is thatso long as we cannot pass out of the physical world - or plane, we are accustomed to call it - weare using one or other or both of these physical vestures; they both belong to the physical plane by their materials, and cannot pass outside it; consciousness working in them is bound withintheir physical limitations, and is subject to the ordinary laws of space and time. Although partially separable, they are rarely separated during earthly life and such separation is inadvisableand is always a sign of disease or of ill-balanced constitution.They are distinguishable by the materials of which they are composed into the gross body andthe ethericdouble, the latter being the exact duplicate of the visible body, particle for particle,and the medium through which play all the electrical and vital currents on which the activity of the body depends. This etheric double has hitherto been called the Linga Sharīra, but it seemsadvisable, for several reasons, to put an end to the use of the name in this relation. "LingaSharīra" has from time immemorial been used in Hindu books in another sense, and muchconfusion arises among students of Eastern literature, whether Easterns or Westerns, inconsequence of its arbitrary wresting from its recognized meaning; for this reason, if for noother, it would be well to surrender its improper use. Further, it is better to have English namesfor the subdivisions of the human constitution, and thus remove from our elementary literaturethe stumbling block to beginners of a Sanskrit terminology. Also, the name etheric doubleexactly expresses the nature and constitution of the subtler portion of the physical body, and isthus significant and therefore easy to remember, as every name should be; it is "etheric" becausemade of ether, "double" because an exact duplicate of the gross body - its shadow, as it were.