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Maneuvering

Maneuvering

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Published by bear7
ManoeuveringMarineVehicles
ManoeuveringMarineVehicles

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Published by: bear7 on May 22, 2011
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06/17/2013

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MANEUVERING
 
AND
 
CONTROL
 
OF
 
MARINE
 
VEHICLES
 
Michael
 
S.
 
Triantafyllou
 
Franz
 
S.
 
Hover
 
Department
 
of 
 
Ocean
 
Engineering
 
Massachusetts
 
Institute
 
of 
 
Technology
 
Cambridge,
 
Massachusetts
 
USA
 
Maneuvering 
 
and
 
Control 
 
of 
 
Marine 
 
Vehicles 
 
Latest
 
Revision:
 
November
 
5,
 
2003
 
Michael
 
S.
 
Triantafyllou
 
and
 
Franz
 
S.
 
Hover
 
c
 
 
Contents
 
1
 
KINEMATICS
 
OF
 
MOVING
 
FRAMES
 
1
1.1
 
Rotation of Reference Frames
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
1
1.2
 
Differential Rotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
2
1.3
 
Rate of Change of Euler Angles
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
4
1.4
 
Dead Reckoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
5
2
 
VESSEL
 
INERTIAL
 
DYNAMICS
 
5
2.1
 
Momentum of a Particle
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
5
2.2
 
Linear Momentum in a Moving Frame
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
6
2.3
 
Example: Mass on a String
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
7
2.3.1
 
Moving Frame Affixed to Mass
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
8
2.3.2
 
Rotating Frame Attached to Pivot Point
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
8
2.3.3
 
Stationary Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
8
2.4
 
Angular Momentum
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
9
2.5
 
Example: Spinning Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
10
2.5.1
 
x
-axis
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
11
2.5.2
 
y
-axis
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
11
2.5.3
 
z
-axis
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
12
2.6
 
Parallel Axis Theorem
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
12
2.7
 
Basis for Simulation
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
12
3
 
NONLINEAR
 
COEFFICIENTS
 
IN
 
DETAIL
 
13
3.1
 
Helpful Facts
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
14
3.2
 
Nonlinear Equations in the Horizontal Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
15
3.2.1
 
Fluid Force
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
15
3.2.2
 
Fluid Force
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
16
3.2.3
 
Fluid Moment
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
17
4
 
VESSEL
 
DYNAMICS:
 
LINEAR
 
CASE
 
17
4.1
 
Surface Vessel Linear Model
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
17
4.2
 
Stability of the Sway/Yaw System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
18
4.3
 
Basic Rudder Action in the Sway/Yaw Model
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
20
4.3.1
 
Adding Yaw Damping through Feedback
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
21
4.3.2
 
Heading Control in the Sway/Yaw Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
21
4.4
 
Response of the Vessel to Step Rudder Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
22
4.4.1
 
Phase 1: Accelerations Dominate
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
22
4.4.2
 
Phase 3: Steady State
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
22
4.5
 
Summary of the Linear Maneuvering Model
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
23
4.6
 
Stability in the Vertical Plane
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
23
i
 
5
 
SIMILITUDE
 
23
5.1
 
Use of Nondimensional Groups
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
23
5.2
 
Common Groups in Marine Engineering
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
25
5.3
 
Similitude in Maneuvering
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
27
5.4
 
Roll Equation Similitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
29
6
 
CAPTIVE
 
MEASUREMENTS
 
30
6.1
 
Towtank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
30
6.2
 
Rotating Arm Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
30
6.3
 
Planar-Motion Mechanism
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
30
7
 
STANDARD
 
MANEUVERING
 
TESTS
 
33
7.1
 
Dieudone Spiral
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
33
7.2
 
Zig-Zag Maneuver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
33
7.3
 
Circle Maneuver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
34
7.3.1
 
Drift Angle
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
34
7.3.2
 
Speed Loss
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
34
7.3.3
 
Heel Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
34
7.3.4
 
Heeling in Submarines with Sails
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
35
8
 
STREAMLINED
 
BODIES
 
35
8.1
 
Nominal Drag Force
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
35
8.2
 
Munk Moment
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
35
8.3
 
Separation Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
36
8.4
 
Net Effects: Aerodynamic Center
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
37
8.5
 
Role of Fins in Moving the Aerodynamic Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
37
8.6
 
Aggregate Effects of Body and Fins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
38
8.7
 
Coefficients
w
 
,
w
 
,
q
 
, and
q
 
for a Slender Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
39
9
 
SLENDER-BODY
 
THEORY
 
39
9.1
 
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
39
9.2
 
Kinematics Following the Fluid
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
40
9.3
 
Derivative Following the Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
41
9.4
 
Differential Force on the Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
41
9.5
 
Total Force on a Vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
42
9.6
 
Total Moment on a Vessel
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
43
9.7
 
Relation to Wing Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
44
9.8
 
Convention: Hydrodynamic Mass Matrix
A
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
44
10
 
PRACTICAL
 
LIFT
 
CALCULATIONS
 
44
10.1 Characteristics of Lift-Producing Mechanisms
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
44
10.2 Jorgensen’s Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
45
10.3 Hoerner’s Data: Notation
 
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
46
10.4 Slender-Body Theory vs. Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
47
10.5 Slender-Body Approximation for Fin Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
48
ii

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