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Intelligence Theories

Intelligence Theories

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Published by Ritika Gaur

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Published by: Ritika Gaur on May 23, 2011
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01/15/2013

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INTELLIGENCE THEORIES.
The information processing theory
The information processing theory is an approach to the cognitive development of ahuman being, which deals with the study and the analysis of the sequence of events thatoccur in a persons mind while receiving some new piece of information. In short, it is theanalysis of the way a human being learns something new. There is a fixed pattern of events that take place in such a situation, and by knowing this pattern we can enablechildren and people with special abilities to learn new things faster.The information processing theory laid down by experts in psychology claims that thehuman mind is very similar to that of computers, as far as information processing andanalysis is concerned. They also say that any new piece of information that enters the brain is first analyzed and then put through the test of several benchmarks before beingstored in some vestibules of the memory. Since these actions occur at a very fast speed,we are unable to notice them in action.The sensory perceptors of a human being function in the same way as the hardware of acomputer does, and the mindset and the rules and strategies adopted by the person whilelearning is equivalent to the software used by computers. The information processingsystem of a person can thus be enhanced if these perceptors and rules are altered. Readmore about cognitive development theory.
Information Processing Model
There is a fixed structure that the information processing theory follows, and it is dividedinto the following four parts.
The store model - This is a breakdown of the model which states that theinformation that has been received can be stored in any of the processing units, or the channels through which it passes. These channels are the sensory register,short-term memory and long-term memory.
The sensory register - This is that part of the mental processing unit that receivesall information and then stores it temporarily or permanently.
Short-term memory - That part of the sensory register where the information isstored temporarily. Once the decision has been made regarding the information,the information will either be discarded or transferred to the long-term memory.
Long-term memory - The part where all the information is permanently stored. Itcan be retrieved later as and when the need arises.
 
Information Processing Theory
 Now let us see what this theory is in a little bit more detail, and how the information processing approach pans out. The following sequence of events should explain what theinformation processing cycle looks like.
At any time, if an individual is perceiving information, storing information,encoding information, representing information or retrieving information to or from his mind, he is said to be thinking.
When a problem or a dilemma presents itself, the individual must encode thecritical information about this problem, and then use information that has beenstored beforehand to solve this problem. The 4 steps that make up this process areencoding, strategy construction, automatization and generalization.
By modifying and adjusting responses to previous problems, a person developsnewer ways to deal with similar problems in the future without making the samemistakes. This is known as self-modification.
Sternberg’s triarchic theory
Overview of Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence (1977, 1985, 1995) subsumesboth Spearmans
 
g
and underlying information processing components. His triarchictheory includes three facets or subtheories:
Analytical (componential)
Creative (experiential)
Practical (contextual)Sternberg's theory builds on his earlier componential approach to reasoning. Histheory is mostly based on observing Yale graduate students. Sternberg believes thatif intelligence is properly defined & measured it will translate to real-life success.Sternberg's Triarchic Theory is an important effort to synthesize the various theoriesof intelligence.
 
 Analytical (componential) Facet (or Subtheory)
Analytical Intelligence similar to the standard psychometric definition of intelligencee.g. as measured by Academic problem solving: analogies and puzzles, andcorresponds to his earlier componential intelligence. Sternberg considers this reflectshow an individual relates to his internal world.Sternberg believes that Analytical Intelligence (Academic problem-solving skills) isbased on the joint operations of metacomponents and performance components andknowledge acquisition components of intelligenceMetacomponents: control, monitor and evaluate cognitive processing. These are the
executive
functions to order and organise performance and knowledge acquisitioncomponents. They are the higher-order processes that order and organise theperformance components. Used to analyze problems and pick a strategy for solvingthem. They decide what to do and the performance components actually do it.Performance Components: execute strategies assembled by the metacomponents.They are the basic operations involved in any cognitive act. They are the cognitiveprocesses that enable us to encode stimuli, hold information in short-term memory,make calculations, perform mental calculations, mentally compare different stimuli,retrieve information from long-term memory.Knowledge acquisition components: are the processes used in gaining and storingnew knowledge - i.e. capacity for learning. The strategies you use to help memorizethings exemplify the processes that fall into this category.Sternberg feels that IDs in intelligence are related to IDs in the use of thesecognitive processes. He feels that people with better reasoning ability generallyspend more time understanding the problem but reach their solution faster thanthose who are less skilled at the task.
Creative (experiential) Facet (or Subtheory)
Creative Intelligence: this involves insights, synthesis and the ability to react tonovel situations and stimuli. This he considers the Experiential aspect of intelligenceand reflects how an individual connects the internal world to external reality.Sternberg considers the Creative facet to consist of the ability which allows people tothink creatively and that which allows people to adjust creatively and effectively tonew situations.Sternberg believes that more intelligent individuals will also move from consciouslylearning in a novel situation to automating the new learning so that they can attendto other tasks.Two-Facet Subtheory (Novelty & Automatization)Basic assumption: That there are two broad classes of abilities associated withintelligence: novelty skills and automatization skills. A task measures intelligence if 

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