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Published by Aji Putra Perdana
Aji Putra Perdana 1, dan Tim GIS and Data Management Unit, Proyek Percontohan Pengendalian Demam Berdarah Dengue Kota Yogyakarta oleh Tahija Foundation.
Dipresentasikan oleh Aji Putra Perdana pada SEASC2009 South East Asian Survey Congress 2009, Bali International Convention Center, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia 4-7 Agustus 2009.
Aji Putra Perdana 1, dan Tim GIS and Data Management Unit, Proyek Percontohan Pengendalian Demam Berdarah Dengue Kota Yogyakarta oleh Tahija Foundation.
Dipresentasikan oleh Aji Putra Perdana pada SEASC2009 South East Asian Survey Congress 2009, Bali International Convention Center, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia 4-7 Agustus 2009.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Aji Putra Perdana on May 24, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Aji Putra Perdana
*, Hilmi Ardiansyah
, Humam Zarodi
GIS and Data Management Unit Assistant, Tahija Foundation, Project Dengue,Project office: Jl. Pandega Sakti 159 Kaliurang Street KM 6, 2 Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia. -ajiputrap@gmail.com,humam_kpj@yahoo.com 
Team Leader GIS and Data Management Unit, Tahija Foundation, Project Dengue,Project office: Jl. Pandega Sakti 159 Kaliurang Street KM 6, 2 Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia. -hilmi_a@yahoo.com 
Dengue fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is already endemic in 45
in the City of Yogyakartayet is the most densely populated. A two years combating dengue fever project started in 2007, the strategy is targeted
 Aedes aegypti
breeding source control using the insect growth regulator. This project involved 262 local peoples and32 surveyors; they are the main actors in geospatial learning. GIS, Satellite Images and GPS are part dengue fever  project in the City of Yogyakarta.
This paper described Geospatial Learning in Combating Dengue Fever inIndonesia Phase II Project (study site: The City of Yogyakarta).
Geospatial, Dengue Fever, GIS, Satellite Images, GPS* Corresponding author.
Vector borne diseases are the most commonworldwide health hazard and represent a constant andserious risk to a large part of the world's population.Among these, dengue fever especially is sweeping theworld in majority of the tropical and arid zones. It istransmitted to the man by the mosquito of the genusAedes and exists in two forms: the Dengue Fever (DF) or classic dengue and the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF), which may evolve into Dengue Shock Syndrome(DSS) (Nakhapakorn, K. et al, 2005).Dengue Fever (DF) and Dengue HaemorrhagicFever (DHF) has become a major international publichealth concern. Many countries/areas in Asia have beenexperiencing unusually high levels of dengue/denguehaemorrhagic fever activity in 1998. Since2004 Indonesia reports the highest number of cases fromthe South East Asia region. In 2006 57 % of the caseswere reported from Indonesia alone (Nakhapakorn, K. etal, 2005; Perdana, Aji P. et al, 2009).Until today, In Indonesia DF/DHF is still themain concern in public health problems on theresponsibility of The Indonesian Ministry of Health.Many efforts and strategies to control dengue have beingconducted by the government, Non-GovernmentOrganization, and society. Strategies to control dengue,is largely through source reduction, health education andintersectoral coordination with many surveillancemethods are used.
Source reduction is
still the mainemphasis in the control of DF/DHF.Dengue cannot be spread directly from personto person, but the spread of disease is unavoidably spatial(Holmes, 1997). Epidemiologists, public health professionals, medical geographers have traditionallyused maps when analyzing associations betweenlocation, environment, and disease. GeographicInformation Systems (GIS) is particularly well suited for studying these associations because of its spatial analysisand display capabilities. GIS and the value of maps usedin public health have a very long history. Dr John Snowis the pioneer in the field. John Snow's now classic mapsof cholera cases in relation to the Broad Street pump area good example.Recently, Geographic Information Systems(GIS) and Remotely Sensed data has been used in thesurveillance and monitoring of vector-borne diseases. A pilot project based on implementation of result fromDengue Project Phase I study site in The City of Yogyakarta had been conducted by the TahijaFoundation (Indonesia) collaborated with Gadjah MadaUniversity. This project was known as CombatingDengue Pilot Project Phase II proposed targeted sourcereduction strategy/control strategy for dengue controlused Geographic Information Systems (GIS) andRemotely Sensed data.
The combating dengue fever project needsgeospatial data of the city of Yogyakarta as treatmentarea and also three Villages in Sleman District and threevillages in Bantul District as control areas; the BaseMaps (Municipality, Villages, AdministrativeBoundaries, River, Roads) and Satellite Images for determine of working area, survey, distribution andmonitoring activities. But there was geospatial data problem related to the needs of geospatial data untilRukun Warga (RW)/Rukun Tetangga (RT) or neighbourhood’s level. It causes several changes in thestrategies of collecting the tabular data from the field.GIS and Data Management Unit, which hasresponsibility in geospatial data management wassuggested the project to use GPS and printed QuickbirdImages to do participatory mapping.This project involved 262 field workers called
 Pemantau DBD
was recruited from 2523 J
RT by
Dinas Kesehatan Kota Yogyakarta
and 32 surveyorsfrom Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University.They are the main actors in collecting data from the fieldto be linked in to geospatial data. Geospatial trainingwas given to them in order to get the right coding infield-collected data, which will be linked into the MapLayers in GIS. Geospatial learning of the field workersand surveyors in this project helps us in combatingdengue fever in the City of Yogyakarta.
The aim of this paper is to describe and seeks toshow how geospatial learning from field workers andsurveyors during the combating dengue fever project inthe City of Yogyakarta. The paper also aims to see the potential and the limitations of geospatial learning withGPS training and participatory mapping as a method toextract information for the combating dengue fever  project. This case study will be the basis for a moregeneral discussion on how the method might be appliedand improved for the future when it comes to becontinued in the next phase.
The City of Yogyakarta and Dengue
Yogyakarta, a city of about 506-522 thousand people, is the provincial capital of the Province or Special Region (
 Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta
, or 
) of Yogyakarta located in south central Java. The Provinceis divided into 5 administrative districts with eachdistrict divided into progressively smaller units beginning with sub-districts (Fig. 1), and these, in turn,divided into
, and further divided into
, ca. 250 residences each), and finally into
rukun tetangga
), the smallest administrative unitcomposed of approximately 50-80 residences.Figure 1. Map of the Municipality of YogyakartaThe City of Yogyakarta is the fourth largest(32.5
in DIY yet is the most densely populated (ca. 16,000 per square kilometre); thisvariability in density explains much of the variability inthe incidence for severe dengue within the Province. Atan incidence rate (IR) of 17.7 cases per 10,000, the Cityhas twice- to three-times higher incidence than thatneighbouring Sleman (7.6) or Bantul (6.3). Dengue fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is alreadyendemic in 45
in the City of Yogyakarta.Table 1. Population size, number and incidence rate (IR, per 10,000) of dengue cases by
for theProvince of Yogyakarta in 2006.
Popu-lationResidences No.casesIR 
Yogyakarta 506,000 105,417 888 17.7Sleman 826,558 172,200 626 7.6Bantul 780,177 162,537 493 6.3Kulonprogo 443,819 92,462 71 1.6GunungKidul746,457 155,512 106 1.4
Totals 3,303,011 688,127 2,184 6.6
Source: Focks, Dana A., 2007
Control Method
 A two years combating dengue fever projectstarted in 2007, the strategy was targeted
 Aedes aegypti
  breeding source control using an insect growth regulator (IGR),
(Fig. 2)
that prevents successfulemergence of adult mosquitoes from the pupal stage.Distribution and monitoring of the insect growthregulator being conducted by 262
 Pemantau DBD’s
,each day 20-25 houses coordinated by Operational units.Independently assessment of the prevalence of IGR in
targeted water container by 32 Surveyors from QualityControl Research & Serology (QCRS) Unit. This teamwas also had two main activities, namely Serology andEntomology.© Dengue Project Documentations Copyright 2008Figure 2. An insect growth regulator (IGR), pyriproxyfen in three kinds of sachetBased on dengue IR, serosurvey andentomologic surveys was conducted only in 12kelurahans, 6 in the City and 3 each in Sleman andBantul on the basis of similar dengue incidence rates(IRs). Serology used to measure of the impact of denguecontrol effort. Entomologic surveys consist of pupalcounts and emergence, adult aspirations, pupal/demographic surveys to determine the reduction of 
 Ae. aegypti
populations due to targeted intervention.Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP)regarding targeting, the utility and safety of the insectgrowth regulator being conducted in sampling area. Wealso used case reported from
 Dinas Kesehatan
of theMunicipality of Yogyakarta to monitor the suppressionof dengue cases.All project data compiled in Data ManagementUnit, which has responsibility to create and maintain therepository of all project data that is spatially explicit,conversion of paper-based data from the other Units intodigital data (data entry) and also summarizing data andcreating maps.
Geospatial Data
 Starting dengue control project requiresinformation about the condition of the study area and for the determination of cluster area (treatment and controlarea), so that the existence of spatial data are absolutelyneeded. Tahija Foundation in collaboration with Facultyof Geography, Gadjah Mada University as Spatial DataProvider since the Dengue Control Phase I and also for this project phase II. Geospatial data included satelliteimages (Quickbird, Ikonos, and Digital Aerial Photosfrom previous project) and base maps Layer.Dengue control project need to be able toeffectively use information, manage project information,combined with spatial dataset to build data integrationfor the purposes of supporting the dengue project. In this project, GIS facilitate the integration of geospatial dataand all data collected into Geodatabase. The dengue project geodatabase contains three primary dataset typesare shown below:
Feature classes
: Base Map Layers;Municipality, Villages, AdministrativeBoundaries, River, Roads, Survey Location(GPS measurements), etc.
Raster datasets
: Quickbird Imagery, IkonosImagery, digital aerial photos
: Dengue Cases Report, DemographicData, IGR Distribution and Monitoring Data, pupal counts and emergence, adult aspirations, pupal/demographic surveys, serology surveys.There were limitations in spatial data andtabular data, such as the smallest mapping unit isvillages, we have no baselines, the exact or detailed datarelated to the number of houses, targeted water container in the City of Yogyakarta, etc. Therefore, we needed the participation from the field for gathering thoseinformation and learned how to combating dengue fever with geospatial data.
Geospatial learning was also part of the capacity building and enriches local knowledge in order to think spatially, do more effective and efficient in their survey,distribution and monitoring activities.
Human Resources
Human resources of geospatial learning in this project consist of core team, data entry persons, fieldworkers, and surveyor team. In the core team, three persons as GIS and data management who deals withgeospatial information and data management. Data entry persons (25-30 persons) helped GIS and datamanagement unit in conversion of paper-based data intodigital data. The main actors are 262 field workers and32 surveyors, because they learned about the use of geospatial data for themselves and also this project.On daily based, the field workers weredistribution IGR, monitoring the prevalence of IGR,checked larvae and pupal in the targeted water container,reported data on paper-based form and submitted to theoffice. They were working in the City of Yogyakarta;especially in their own neighbourhoods for more than 5RT and it’s depended on the numbers of RT andPemantau DBD in their own villages. But, the surveyorsconducted entomologic surveys only in 12 kelurahans, 6in the City and 3 each in Sleman and Bantul. Sometimes

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