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Table Of Contents

Oil and Natural Gas: Petrochemical Feedstocks
TABLE 1.1 U.S. Energy Supply 1899-191910
TABLE 1.2 Products Currently Recoverable from Crude Oil *
Explosive Developments
FIGURE 1.3 Structures of Nitro-organic Explosives: TNT and Picric Acid
Chemical Weapons
FIGURE 1.4 Structures of Phosgene and Mustard Gas
The War-Born Industry
Persistence Pays Off: The Development of Tetraethyl Lead
How Simple It Is: The Story of Freon
The Emergence of the Petrochemical Industry
Chemical Technology: The Power and the Proliferation
Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Product Tree
Completing the Natural to Synthetic Transition
TABLE 2.1 Synthetic vs. Natural Products 1860-1940
Energy and Chemical Feedstocks: An Unquenchable Thirst
Plastics and Aerosols: Convenience in a Throwaway Society
Secrecy, Denial, and the Development of Atomic Energy
A Revolution in the Making
The Politics of Air and Water Pollution
The Great Automobile Debate
The Battle for Air Supremacy
The Control of Water Pollution: A Different Approach
Energy: The Costs and Consequences of Consumption
Nuclear Power: The Promise and the Payoff
Chemical Weapons: Outrage Revisited
Pesticides and the Onset of Chemophobia
Awareness Translated into Action: Establishment of the EPA
TABLE 5.1 Federal Environmentally Related Laws 1899-1969
TABLE 5.2 1970 Federal Environmental Agency Reorganization
TABLE 5.3 Environmental Health and Safety Legislation of the 1970s
TABLE 5.4 Chemically Related Environmental Statutes of the 1970s
FIGURE 5.1 1975-1980 Data on Chemical Use and Carcinogenicity171
EPA: The Demise of Chlorinated Pesticides
Federal Regulation of Chemical Carcinogens during the 1970s
Dreadful Discoveries: The Dioxin Dilemma
Cancer Prevention Politics in the 1970s: What It Was All About
Coming to Grips with Hazardous Wastes
RCRA and Superfund: Federal Control of Hazardous Wastes
TABLE 5.7 “Organic” Chlorine Production 1929-79
Chemical Technology in the 1970s: The Industry Changes Course
FIGURE 5.2 Total Production of Synthetic Organic Chemicals 1950-1979
FIGURE 5.3 Pesticide Production\Sales 1980-1999
The Commercial Chemical Product Life Cycle
Biotechnology: The Power and the Peril
The Impact of Bhopal
TABLE 6.1 Identification of Hazardous Substances Under Federal Laws
Toxic Release Inventory (TRI): The Power of Information
TABLE 6.2 Environmental Distribution of 1988 Core* TRI Chemicals
TABLE 6.3 Top 15 Organics released to the Air (1988 TRI Report)
Air Pollution: From the Atmosphere to the Stratosphere
Urban Smog
Cancer Politics in the 1990s
The Economics of Safe Drinking Water
Superfund: The Costs of Environmental Cleanup
Cleaner Air in the 1990s
TABLE 7.1 Cost of Selected Regulations per Statistical Life Saved 299
Criteria Pollutants
TABLE 7.2 U.S. Emissions of Six Major Air Pollutants 1970-1998301
Air Toxics
Acid Rain
Ozone Depletion
Greenhouse Gases
Arsenic in Drinking Water
Unexpected Allies: Environmentalists and the New Supreme Court
The Identification and Control of Chemical Hazards: Round II
The European Union’s Bold New Initiatives
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Cosmetics
Plastics
E-wastes
Automobiles
TABLE 9.1 Developed Nation Health-care Statistics378
A Chemical Technology Credo for the New Millennium
1. FDA: Food Additives and the Delaney Amendment
The Saccharin Affair
Acrylonitrile and the Plastic Bottle Wars: Coke vs. Pepsi
2. OSHA: Cancer in the Workplace
Asbestos
Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM)
3. CPSC: Carcinogens in the Home
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Index
P. 1
Chemicals, Human Health, and the Environment

Chemicals, Human Health, and the Environment

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Published by Xlibris
As we enter the new millennium, chemical and energy technology practice is in the throes of a paradigm shift. During the past fi fty years there has been a growing awareness of the adverse effects of chemical products, byproducts and wastes upon human health and the environment, and the development of federal and state regulations has been an important fi rst step in the redress of these problems. This book provides a history of these early years from a scientific and sociopolitical perspective to provide the necessary background for charting a course for the new millennium. The sources of pollution of the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land that provides our sustenance and the blood that courses through our veins are no longer regional or even national in scope and it is clear that new ways of thinking are required to insure that the ongoing evolution of chemical and energy technology is in keeping with the needs of all the people and ecosystems of planet earth. The book concludes with an environmental credo to provide the technical, political and ethical bases for the paradigm shift to a sustainable balance among chemicals, human health and the environment.
As we enter the new millennium, chemical and energy technology practice is in the throes of a paradigm shift. During the past fi fty years there has been a growing awareness of the adverse effects of chemical products, byproducts and wastes upon human health and the environment, and the development of federal and state regulations has been an important fi rst step in the redress of these problems. This book provides a history of these early years from a scientific and sociopolitical perspective to provide the necessary background for charting a course for the new millennium. The sources of pollution of the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land that provides our sustenance and the blood that courses through our veins are no longer regional or even national in scope and it is clear that new ways of thinking are required to insure that the ongoing evolution of chemical and energy technology is in keeping with the needs of all the people and ecosystems of planet earth. The book concludes with an environmental credo to provide the technical, political and ethical bases for the paradigm shift to a sustainable balance among chemicals, human health and the environment.

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Publish date: Jun 3, 2009
Added to Scribd: May 24, 2011
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9781462810437
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