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AS Biology Revision Pack UNIT 2

AS Biology Revision Pack UNIT 2

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Published by: George Noorland on May 24, 2011
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01/21/2014

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Emily Summers1
AS OCR Biology Revision PackUNIT f211 Cells, exchange, transportModule 1 CellsCell Structure
1. State the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope, a transmission electron microscopeand a scanning electron microscope.
 
L
ight Microscope TEM SEMMaximumResolution
0.2 micrometres 0.0001 micrometres 0.005 micrometres
MaximumMagnification
X 1500 Over x 1,000,000 Under x 1, 000, 000
2. Explain the difference between magnification and resolution
Magnification
How much bigger the image is than the specimen.Magnification = Length of Image / Length of specimen
Resolution
How well a microscope distinguishes between two points that are closetogether.
3. Explain the need for staining samples for use in light and electron microscopy
In Light microscopes and TEM¶s the beam of lights/electrons pass through the object,and there is an image produced as some parts of the specimen absorb morelight/electrons than others, but sometimes the specimen is transparent so it will lookwhite because light/electrons pass through so the object is stained
L
ight Microscope
 
Electron Microscope
 
Dye- usuallymethylene blue/eosin Specimen dipped in metal like lead, themetal ions scatter electrons to contrast.
4. Calculate the linear magnification of an image
Magnification =
L
ength of Image /
L
ength of specimen
5. Outline the functions of the structures.
 
Emily Summers2
PictureDescriptionFunction
Large and containschromatin. Enclosed by anuclear envelope
 double membrane.Nuclear pores go throughthe envelope. Nucleolusinside.Nucleus contains thecell¶s genetic material.Chromatin contains DNAand proteins whichregulate cell activities.Instructions for makingproteins.Flattened membranoussacs called cisternae,rough is studded withribosomes, smooth is not.RER transports proteinsand SER is involved inlipid synthesis.Stack of flat, membranebound stacks. [Pittabread!]Golgi body receivesproteins from ER andmodifies them.Packages proteins intovesicles to transportthem
exocytosisSausage shaped. Doublemembrane separated byfluid filled space. Inner membrane is folded toform cristae and themiddle part of themitochondria is called thematrix.Site of aerobicrespiration, ATP isproduced.In plant cells. Doublemembrane. Membranoussacs called thylakoids,plural=granum.Plural=grana.Site of photosynthesis,carbohydrate moleculesmade.
 
Emily Summers3
Spherical sacssurrounded by a singlemembrane, with no clear internal structure.Contains enzymes.Enzymes break downcells. E.g. white bloodcell lyosomes breakdown invadingmicroorganisms andlyosome in the sperm¶shead breaks down thematerial surrounding theegg.TINY.Bound to ER to makeRER and also incytoplasm. Consist of twosubunits.
 Site of protein synthesis,they are like anassembly line wheremRNA from the nucleusis used to make proteinsfrom amino acids.Eukaryotic- 80SProkaryotic- 70SSmall tubes of microtubules. A pair canbe found next to thenucleus in animal cells. Also in some protocytists.Involved in cell divisionto make spindles whichmove chromosomes innuclear division.Membrane bound sacfound in plants filled withcell sap.Keep the plantsupported, rigid andturgid. Also like agarbage disposal for plants.Network of protein fibresSupport, movement.E.g. Chromosomemovement in mitosis.

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