900 MHz GSM roaming (Global System for Mobile communications, originally from
). The sum of the two random SAR values was always below the 2-W/kg maximumupper limits recommended in the guidelines of theInternational Commission on Non-Ionizing Radia-tion Protection (I.C.N.I.R.P1998). Four different subscriber identity module cards unrelated to theexperimenter were randomly used.For negative controls, the two apparatus werenot present in the hive during the recording of thenatural background sounds made by the bees. For undisturbed control experiments (
experi-ments), the two mobile phone handsets were either shut down or kept in the standby mode. The basicsetup of the experiments is schematically shown inFigure1.In order to establish whether inactive mobile phonehandsets perturbed the behavior ofthe bees,two mobile phone handsets were placed in the hive in close vicinityof the honeybees. In a first series of experiments(negative control;
=8), two inactive (
mode)mobile phone handsets were placed in the hive for upto 24 h. In a second series of experiments (shamexperiments,
=10), the two mobile phone handsets were kept in the hive in the standbymode, for prolonged periods of time (4 to 24 h). As positive control experiments, the two mobile phonehandsets were employed in an active communicationmode. The first mobile phone was placed in the hiveand was supplemented with a hands-free kit, the minimicrophone of which was held in front of a radioapparatus maintained outside the hive (
60 cm away,so that it does not interfere with the recording performed by the microphone near the bees) andconstantly playing the France info program (output of the small radio loudspeaker,
18±2 dB at 1 cm). Thisenables a permanent signal to be sent from this first toa second telephone, otherwise without this signal thecommunication is automatically interrupted after a period of time. To generate a mobile phone commu-nication near the bees, the first mobile phone was
Apparatus positioning in the different hives.
Schematic drawing. Sound recorder
was connected toa microphone
, the latter was placed in the close vicinityof the bees in the hive. The first (emitting) mobile phone
was connected with hands-free kit, the latter having itssmall microphone maintained on the loudspeaker of aradio apparatus
. A second (receiving) mobile phone
,also having a hands-free kit, was also kept inside thehive. The use of the radio apparatus is intended to allowa permanent communication between the two mobile phone handsets, in order to avoid unwanted disconnec-tion after a while.
Image of a Dadant-Blatt model of beehive. The microphone is placed through the upper nourishing hole.
Image of a Swiss Bürki model of beehive. The microphone was placed behind a boardhaving a grid instead of a glass plate. During theexperiments, the door of the Bürki hive was closed andthe Dadant-Blatt hive was covered with the roof. Asimilar positioning can be easily performed with other types of beehives.
Cellular phones and worker piping