Sikkim Manipal University - MBA - MU0010 – Manpower Planning and ResourcingSemester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2
A student's percentile rank can vary depending on which group is used to determine the ranking. Astudent is simultaneously a member of many different groups: all students in her classroom, herbuilding, her school district, her state, and the nation. Different sets of percentile ranks are availablewith the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills to permit schools to make the most relevant comparisons involvingtheir students.
Types of Score Interpretation
An achievement test is built to help determine how much skill or knowledge students have in a certainarea. We use such tests to find out whether students know as much as we expect they should, orwhether they know particular things we regard as important. By itself, the raw score from anachievement test does not indicate how much a student knows or how much skill she or he has. Moreinformation is needed to decide "how much." The test score must be compared or referenced tosomething in order to bring meaning to it. That "something" typically is (a) the scores other studentshave obtained on the test or (b) a series of detailed descriptions that tell what students at each scorepoint know or which skills they have successfully demonstrated. These two ways of referencing a scoreto obtain meaning are commonly called norm-referenced and criterion-referenced score interpretations.
A norm-referenced interpretation involves comparing a student's score with the scores other studentsobtained on the same test. How much a student knows is determined by the student's standing or rankwithin the reference group. High standing is interpreted to mean the student knows a lot or is highlyskilled, and low standing means the opposite. Obviously, the overall competence of the norm groupaffects the interpretation significantly. Ranking high in an unskilled group may represent lower absoluteachievement than ranking low in an exceptional high performing group.
A criterion-referenced interpretation involves comparing a student's score with a subjective standard of performance rather than with the performance of a norm group. Deciding whether a student hasmastered a skill or demonstrated minimum acceptable performance involves a criterion-referencedinterpretation. Usually percent-correct scores are used and the teacher determines the score neededfor mastery or for passing.
Interpreting Scores from Special Test Administrations
A testing accommodation is a change in the procedures for administering the test that is intended toneutralize, as much as possible, the effect of the student's disability on the assessment process. Theintent is to remove the effect of the disability(ies), to the extent possible, so that the student isassessed on equal footing with all other students. In other words, the score reflects what the studentknows, not merely what the student's disabilities allow him/her to show.The expectation is that the accommodation will cancel the disadvantage associated with the student'sdisability. This is the basis for choosing the type and amount of accommodation to be given to astudent. Sometimes the accommodation won't help quite enough, sometimes it might help a little toomuch, and sometimes it will be just right. We never can be sure, but we operate as though we havemade a good judgment about how extensive a student's disability is and how much it will interfere withobtaining a good measure of what the student knows. Therefore, the use of an accommodation shouldhelp the student experience the same conditions as those in the norm group. Thus, the norms still offera useful comparison; the scores can be interpreted in the same way as the scores of a student whoneeds no accommodations.