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Table Of Contents

2.2. COMMON TRANSFORMER CHARACTERISTICS
2.3. DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS
2.3.2. Medium distribution transformers, MDT
2.3.4. Dry-type distribution transformers
2.3.5. Other transformer types
2.4. POWER TRANSFORMERS
2.4.1. Generator step up transformers
2.4.2. Step-down transformers
2.4.3. System intertie transformers
2.4.4. Industrial transformers
2.4.5. Traction transformers
2.5. REACTORS
2.5.1. Shunt reactors
2.5.2. Current limiting reactors
2.5.3. Neutral earthing reactors
2.5.4. Capacitor damping reactors
2.5.5. Tuning (Filter) reactors
2.5.6. Earthing transformers (Neutral couplers)
2.5.7. Arc suppression reactors
2.5.8. Smoothing reactors
3. QUALITY, INTERNAL CONTROL, SUSTAINABILITY
3.1. MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
3.1.1. Quality
3.1.2. Internal control
3.1.3. Environmental system
3.1.4. Sustainable development
3.2. CUSTOMER REVIEW OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
3.3. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
4. LOSS CAPITALISATION AND OPTIMUM TRANSFORMER DESIGN
5. INFORMATION REQUIRED WITH ENQUIRY AND ORDER
5.1. NORMAL INFORMATION
5.2. SPECIAL INFORMATION
5.3. PARALLEL OPERATIONS
6. TRANSFORMER DESIGN
6.1. CORES
6.2. WINDINGS
6.3. TANK
6.4. EARTH QUAKE WITHSTAND ABILITY
7. TRANSFORMER COMPONENTS
7.1. TERMINALS
7.1.1. Bushings
7.1.2. Cable connections
7.1.3. SF6 connections
7.2. COOLERS
7.2.1. Radiators
7.2.2. Corrugated tanks
7.2.3. Fans
7.2.4. Forced oil, forced air heat exchangers
7.2.5. Oil-water coolers
7.2.6. Oil pumps
7.3. VOLTAGE REGULATION EQUIPMENT
7.3.1. Off Circuit tap changers
7.3.2. On load tap changers
7.4.1. Types of accessories
7.4.2. Power transformer and oil immersed reactor accessories
7.4.3. Distribution transformer accessories
8. INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING
8.1. GENERAL
8.1.1. Responsibilities
8.1.2. Incoterms (Transfer of responsibility)
8.2. INSTALLATION
8.2.1. Power- and large distribution transformers
8.2.2. Distribution transformers
8.3. COMMISSIONING
8.3.1. Energising
8.3.2. Documentation
9. OPERATION, MONITORING AND MAINTENANCE
9.1. GENERAL PRECAUTIONS
9.2. OPERATION
9.2.1. Lifetime
9.2.2. Temperature rise and load capacity
9.2.3. Parallel operation
9.2.4. Frequency
9.2.5. Protection
9.3. MONITORING
9.3.1. General
9.3.2. High level monitoring
9.3.3. Low level monitoring
9.3.4. Inspection in energised condition
9.3.5. Inspection in de-energised condition
9.4. MAINTENANCE
9.4.1. General
9.4.2. Maintenance in energised condition
9.4.3. Maintenance in de-energised condition
9.4.4. Investigation of transformer disturbances
9.4.5. Transformer liquid and insulation
9.4.6. Bushings and joints
9.4.7. Off-circuit tap changer
9.4.8. On-load tap-changer
9.4.9. Motor drive unit
9.4.10. Oil filtering unit
9.4.11. Coolers
9.4.12. Liquid conservator with rubber diaphragm
9.4.13. Gaskets
9.4.14. Dry-type transformers
9.4.15. Surface protection
10. DISPOSAL AFTER USE
10.1. LOCAL REGULATIONS
10.2. REUSE
10.3. LANDFILL
10.4. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA)
10.5. PCB-Contaminated oil
11. PHYSICAL FUNDAMENTALS
11.1. INTRODUCTION
11.2. CHOICE OF SYSTEM VOLTAGE
11.3. BASIC PHYSICS OF THE TRANSFORMER
11.4. EQUIVALENT DIAGRAM
11.5. VOLTAGE RATIO AND VOLTAGE DROP (OR RISE)
11.6. Efficiency
11.7. NO LOAD (MAGNETISING) CURRENT AND NO LOAD LOSSES
11.8. LOAD LOSSES
11.9. SHORT-CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE
11.10. ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCES
11.11. TRANSFORMER SOUND
12. THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS
13. TRANSFORMER MATERIALS
13.1. CORE MATERIALS
13.2. CONDUCTOR MATERIALS
13.3. INSULATION MATERIALS
13.3.1. Solid insulation materials
13.3.2. Fluids
13.3.3. Other fluids
14. TESTING OF TRANSFORMERS
14.1. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
14.2. ROUTINE TESTS
14.3. TYPE TESTS
14.4. SPECIAL TESTS
15. OVERVOLTAGES AND OVERVOLTAGE LIMITATION
15.1. LIMITATION OF TEMPORARY OVERVOLTAGES
15.1.1. Overvoltages due to earth-fault
15.1.2. Load rejection overvoltages
15.1.3. Overvoltages due to ferroresonance
15.2. LIMITATION OF TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGES
15.3. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS FOR DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS
15.3.1. Internal overvoltages caused by high frequency oscillations
15.4. TRANSFERRED OVERVOLTAGES IN TRANSFORMERS
16. MISCELLANEOUS
16.1. CERTIFICATION/APPROVAL/LABELLING
16.2. DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
16.3. IP-CLASSIFICATION
16.3.1. General
16.3.2. Degrees of protection against solid objects
16.3.3. Degrees of protection against water
16.3.4. Comparison to NEMA ratings
16.4. TERMINAL DESIGNATION, IDENTIFYING TERMINALS
16.4.1. Single phase transformer
16.4.2. Three phase transformer
16.5. RATING PLATE
16.6. ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC)
16.6.1. Definitions
16.6.2. Electromagnetic disturbances on transformers
16.6.3. Electromagnetic field in the vicinity of transformers
16.6.4. Effect of electromagnetic fields on humans
16.7. UNITS AND CONVERSION TABLES
16.7.1. Basic Sl units
16.7.2. Multiples and sub-multiples of units
16.7.3. Electrical and magnetic quantities
16.7.4. General electrotechnical symbols
16.8. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
16.9. CONTRIBUTORS
16.10. FEEDBACK
16.11. OBTAINING COPIES OF THE HANDBOOK
17. BIBLIOGRAPHY
17.1. TRANSFORMER-RELEVANT STANDARDS
17.1.1. IEC standards
17.1.2. CENELEC standards
17.1.3. IEEE standards
17.1.4. Comparison between ANSI/IEEE standards and IEC standards
17.1.5. IEC Standards
17.1.6. CENELEC Standards
17.1.7. ANSI/IEEE Standards
17.2. OTHER RELEVANT STANDARDS AND LITTERATURE
Re. 4 FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
Re. 4.1 General
Re. 5 INSULATION
Re. 6 EQUIPMENT
Re. 7 INSTALLATIONS
Re. 7.1 General requirements
Re. 8 SAFETY MEASURES
Re. 9 PROTECTION, CONTROL AND AUXILIARY SYSTEMS
Re. 9.1 Monitoring and control systems
Re. 10 EARTHING SYSTEMS
Re. 10.1 General
Re. 10.2 Fundamental requirements
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Published by Rubal Kathait

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Published by: Rubal Kathait on May 25, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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