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MB0040-MBA-1st Sem 2011 Assignment Staistics for Managment

MB0040-MBA-1st Sem 2011 Assignment Staistics for Managment

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Published by Ali Asharaf Khan
MB0040-MBA-1st Sem 2011 Assignment Staistics for Managment
MB0040-MBA-1st Sem 2011 Assignment Staistics for Managment

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Published by: Ali Asharaf Khan on May 25, 2011
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04/12/2014

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With Lots of Lucks
Statistics
Page|
1
 www.winsofttech.org 
1.
 
a) What is the difference between a qualitative and quantitative variable?
Ans:
Qualitative variables are based on qualitative aspect or descriptive characteristics of aphenomenon viz. sex, beauty, literacy, honesty, intelligence, religion, eye-sight tec.Such variables are usually dichotomous in nature in which the whole data are dividedinto two groups viz. a group with presence of the attribute and a group with absence of theattribute such as blind and not blind, deaf and not deaf etc.However in certain cases variables can also be made in manifold manner in which thedata are grouped under more than two classes. This type of classification is made when thequalitative aspect are defined by some grade or performance. For instance, in the field of education, the classification can be made in to different group viz. primary, secondary, highersecondary, and higher education. Similarly on the basis of eye sight, the data may be groupedunder different grades of eye-sight viz. A, B, C, etc. Further, qualitative classifications aremade in made manner when more than on e attribute are taken into consideration at a time, theclassification will lead to a type of manifold classification.Quantitative variables are numerical in nature. In simple these variables can be measured inquantitative terms. For example- mark, income, expenditure, profit, loss, height, weight, age,price, production etc. which is capable of quantitative expression and measurement.Quantitative variables may be defined as a characteristic which varies in amount of magnitudeunder different time and place e.g. mark, age, and height etc. These variables can be of twotypes viz. a) discrete variables, b) Continuous variables. A variable that assumes only somespecified values in a given range is known as discrete variable. A variable that assumes all thevalues in the series is known as continuous variables.
b)
Before answering this question we need to know what population is and what a sample is.The totality of all individual in a survey is called
population or universe
. If the number of objects in a population is finite then it is called finite population otherwise it is known asinfinite population.A sample is a part or subset of the population. By studying the sample, we can predictthe characteristics of the entire population from where the sample is taken. The data thatdescribes the characteristics of sample is known as statistics.Now if we interview only one particular neighborhood then it would be a sample surveynot a population survey. Because here we interviewed every individuals of a particular groupnot the whole population. But by selecting 100 people from all neighborhoods for a surveywould be called as a random sample.
 
With Lots of Lucks
Statistics
Page|
2
 www.winsofttech.org 
2.
 
a) Explain the steps involved in planning of a statistical survey?Ans:
Stages in a statistical survey:1.
 
Nature of the problem to be investigated should be clearly defined in an unambiguousmanner.2.
 
Objectives of the investigation should be stated at the outset. Objectives could be
§
 
Obtain certain estimates.
§
 
Establish a theory.
§
 
Verify an existing statement.
§
 
Find relationship between characteristics.3.
 
The scope of investigation has to be made clear. The scope of the investigation refers tothe area to be covered, identification of units to be studied, nature of characteristics tobe observed, accuracy of measurement, analytical method, time cost and other resourcesrequired.4.
 
Whether to use data collected from primary sources or secondary sources should bedetermined in advanced.5.
 
The organization of investigation is the final step in the process. It encompasses thedetermination of the number of investigator required, their training, supervision work needed, funds required.
b) What are the merits & Demerits of Direct personal observation and Indirect OralInterview?Ans:
 
Direct personal observation:
In the direct personal observation method, theinvestigator collects data by having direct contact with the units of investigation. The accuracyof the data depends upon the ability, training, and attitude of the investigator
.Merits
 
We get the original data which is more accurate and reliable.
 
 
Satisfactory information can be extracted by the investigator through indirect questions.
 
 
Data is homogenous and comparable.
 
 
Additional information can be gathered.
 
Misinterpretation of question can be avoided.
Demerits 
 
This method consumes more cost.
 
 
This method costs more time.
 
 
This cannot be used when the scope of the investigation is wide.
 Indirect oral interview:
Indirect oral interview is used when the area to be covered is large.The investigator collects the data from a third party or witness or had of the institution. Thismethod is generally used by police department in cases related to enquiries on causes of fires,theft or murders.
Merits
 
Economical in terms of time, cost and man power.
 
 
Confidential information can be collected.
 
 
Information is likely to be unbiased and reliable.
 
 
With Lots of Lucks
Statistics
Page|
3
 www.winsofttech.org 
Demerits
 
The degree of accuracy of information is less.
 3.
 
a)Central Value Limits Frequency Less than Greater than5 0-10 5 10 5 0 6315 10-20 11 20 16 10 5825 20-30 21 30 37 20 4735 30-40 16 40 53 30 2645 40-50 10 50 63 40 10Total 63Now from the meeting points of these two ogives if we draw a perpendicular to the Xaxis, the point where it meets X axis gives median of the series. So here midpoint of 20-30limit is 25. So median is 25.By actual calculation
Here n=63, hence median is (N+1)/2
th
item which is (63+1)/2=32
nd
item =25.So ogive median and actual median are same.
 b) Size f cf 1000-1500 120 1201500-2000 f 
1
120+f 
1
2000-2500 400 520+f 
1
2500-3000 500 1020+f 
1
3000-4000 410-f 
1
*
 
14304000-5000 50 14805000-6000 20 1500N=1500(
given)
*N=
1500-(120+400+500+50+20)-f 
1

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