universal as necessary, it gives reason to the particular fact. The search for the universaltends towards unification always more complete of the real under a form of law, whichintegrates absolutely all. So, the spirit tends to know the ultimate reason of things.
3-Explanation and Reason.
Universality and necessity are not complete without the spirit. The universal isknown in the concrete particular. It is the particular that sustains the universal. Thisimplies an overcoming of its simple particularity. The broadening of the particular,hereafter its individuality in the universal, is a necessity of the particular because thiswould be knowable. Nothing would be knowable if it is not present to the knower.
Theexperience of knowledge from the very start supposes an openness of the object towardsthe subject, and inversely.
The first relation of knowledge is not abstract, but concrete.The universal is put in operation from the beginning, in an experience where the sensedand the sensing are necessarily present, one to the other. This condition is unconditioned.It does not depend on the causal efficiency.The principle of reason conjoins being and the spirit. It expresses the dualmovement of the
spirit dynamically tied up towards the object
being which presents itself intelligibly to the spirit
. In short, the movement of the spirit is tendentialwhile the object is presentational. This dual movement is necessary.
Every knowledge isintentional
. A skeptical knowledge dies away in silence, or falls in the exercise of contradiction. To admit not knowing anything, it places itself to the origin of a dynamismthat goes towards the recognition of the entire vanity of its strength, vanity but worthknowing. The skeptical negation demands being objective and necessary.
To know not toknow is necessarily knowing
. Similarly, if beings are not intelligible, the dynamism of thespirit is contradictorily vane. To deny that the objectivity is intelligible means to denyintelligibility of this negation, hence demanding intelligibility. Therefore,
it is necessarythat the spirit tends towards objectivity, and that this would be intelligible.
There are objectivity and intelligibility necessarily without conditions; but we donot know which thing is objective and intelligible,
if there are no forms used in thedialogue with the object
. In fact, this ultimate concession shows sufficiency thatknowledge can be objective and intelligible, and that it knows it reflectively.The principle of reason conjoins reflectively the objectivity of the act of knowledge with the intelligibility of the known being. The word “reason” signifies thatthrough which a being is intelligible, that is its objective reason, and subjective reason,the faculty that has all its “reason”. The objective norm constitutes a whole with thesubjective faculty, and inversely. “Reason” refers one to the other the intelligibility of being and the objectivity of the intellective mode of grasping. Then, this principle is first.It is not possible to deduce it from another principle, because it establishes withoutcondition the intelligibility in the objectivity, and inversely.